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Frailty, fitness and late-life mortality in relation to chronological and biological age.

Mitnitski AB, Graham JE, Mogilner AJ, Rockwood K - BMC Geriatr (2002)

Bottom Line: From the frailty index, relative (to CA) fitness and frailty were estimated, as was an individual's biological age.The average value of the frailty index increased with age in a log-linear relationship (r = 0.91; p < 0.001).The frailty index is a sensitive predictor of survival.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal QB, Canada. arnold@grbb.polymtl.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: People age at remarkably different rates, but how to estimate trajectories of senescence is controversial.

Methods: In a secondary analysis of a representative cohort of Canadians aged 65 and over (n = 2914) we estimated a frailty index based on the proportion of 20 deficits observed in a structured clinical examination. The construct validity of the index was examined through its relationship to chronological age (CA). The criterion validity was examined in its ability to predict mortality, and in relation to other predictions about aging. From the frailty index, relative (to CA) fitness and frailty were estimated, as was an individual's biological age.

Results: The average value of the frailty index increased with age in a log-linear relationship (r = 0.91; p < 0.001). In a Cox regression analysis, biological age was significantly more highly associated with death than chronological age. The average increase in the frailty index (i.e. the average accumulation of deficits) amongst those with no cognitive impairment was 3 per cent per year.

Conclusions: The frailty index is a sensitive predictor of survival. As the index includes items not traditionally related to adverse health outcomes, the finding is compatible with a view of frailty as the failure to integrate the complex responses required to maintain function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cumulative proportion of surviving as a function of time to death for two groups with chronological age (A) and biological age (B) less and greater than 80 years. Circles correspond to experimental data for individuals below 80 years old and triangles for individuals above 80 years. Curves correspond to the least square Gompertz's functions (solid lines fit data for the individuals below 80 years and dashed lines for those who was older than 80 years).
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Figure 6: Cumulative proportion of surviving as a function of time to death for two groups with chronological age (A) and biological age (B) less and greater than 80 years. Circles correspond to experimental data for individuals below 80 years old and triangles for individuals above 80 years. Curves correspond to the least square Gompertz's functions (solid lines fit data for the individuals below 80 years and dashed lines for those who was older than 80 years).

Mentions: The list of deficits is presented below. (The numbers in parentheses refers to their position in Figure 6 and correspond to those used in [27]). Vision loss (22), hearing loss (23), impaired mobility (3), vascular problem (36), gait abnormality, impaired vibration sense (56), difficulty toileting (11), difficulty cooking (7), difficulty bathing (10), difficulty going out (6), difficulty grooming (9), skin problems (40), resting tremor (47), changes in sleep (2), difficulty dressing (8), urinary complaints (29), gastro-intestinal problem (28), diabetes (31), hypertension (24), limb tone abnormality (46).


Frailty, fitness and late-life mortality in relation to chronological and biological age.

Mitnitski AB, Graham JE, Mogilner AJ, Rockwood K - BMC Geriatr (2002)

Cumulative proportion of surviving as a function of time to death for two groups with chronological age (A) and biological age (B) less and greater than 80 years. Circles correspond to experimental data for individuals below 80 years old and triangles for individuals above 80 years. Curves correspond to the least square Gompertz's functions (solid lines fit data for the individuals below 80 years and dashed lines for those who was older than 80 years).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC88955&req=5

Figure 6: Cumulative proportion of surviving as a function of time to death for two groups with chronological age (A) and biological age (B) less and greater than 80 years. Circles correspond to experimental data for individuals below 80 years old and triangles for individuals above 80 years. Curves correspond to the least square Gompertz's functions (solid lines fit data for the individuals below 80 years and dashed lines for those who was older than 80 years).
Mentions: The list of deficits is presented below. (The numbers in parentheses refers to their position in Figure 6 and correspond to those used in [27]). Vision loss (22), hearing loss (23), impaired mobility (3), vascular problem (36), gait abnormality, impaired vibration sense (56), difficulty toileting (11), difficulty cooking (7), difficulty bathing (10), difficulty going out (6), difficulty grooming (9), skin problems (40), resting tremor (47), changes in sleep (2), difficulty dressing (8), urinary complaints (29), gastro-intestinal problem (28), diabetes (31), hypertension (24), limb tone abnormality (46).

Bottom Line: From the frailty index, relative (to CA) fitness and frailty were estimated, as was an individual's biological age.The average value of the frailty index increased with age in a log-linear relationship (r = 0.91; p < 0.001).The frailty index is a sensitive predictor of survival.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal QB, Canada. arnold@grbb.polymtl.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: People age at remarkably different rates, but how to estimate trajectories of senescence is controversial.

Methods: In a secondary analysis of a representative cohort of Canadians aged 65 and over (n = 2914) we estimated a frailty index based on the proportion of 20 deficits observed in a structured clinical examination. The construct validity of the index was examined through its relationship to chronological age (CA). The criterion validity was examined in its ability to predict mortality, and in relation to other predictions about aging. From the frailty index, relative (to CA) fitness and frailty were estimated, as was an individual's biological age.

Results: The average value of the frailty index increased with age in a log-linear relationship (r = 0.91; p < 0.001). In a Cox regression analysis, biological age was significantly more highly associated with death than chronological age. The average increase in the frailty index (i.e. the average accumulation of deficits) amongst those with no cognitive impairment was 3 per cent per year.

Conclusions: The frailty index is a sensitive predictor of survival. As the index includes items not traditionally related to adverse health outcomes, the finding is compatible with a view of frailty as the failure to integrate the complex responses required to maintain function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus