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The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13%) among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency) in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy – from the neurovascular bundles, the seminal vesicles, from the apex of the prostate and from the periprostatic tissue – this type of biopsy is supposed to help in determining local staging of the neoplastic disease. The ultrasound examination is also helpful during the treatment of the neoplasm performed using brachytherapy or using the method of ultrasonic ablation which is still in the phase of clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


The transrectal examination of the prostate. The hypoechogenic infiltration developing within the scope of the peripheral zone clearly extends beyond the prostate capsule
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f0017: The transrectal examination of the prostate. The hypoechogenic infiltration developing within the scope of the peripheral zone clearly extends beyond the prostate capsule

Mentions: The group of cancers which are assessed as T1 includes tumors which are clinically not apparent, imperceptible in palpation examinations of the prostate, not visible in imaging examinations. The neoplasms which are confined within the prostate are classified in the T2 group and those extending beyond the prostate capsule – in the T3 group (with taking into consideration the microscopic infiltration of the urinary bladder cervix – T3a, the seminal vesicles – T3b). Immobile (fixed) tumors or tumors infiltrating tissues other than seminal vesicles, e.g. the external urethral sphincter, the rectum, the levatori ani muscles or the pelvic wall are qualified in the T4 group (Fig. 15, 16, 17, 18).


The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2
The transrectal examination of the prostate. The hypoechogenic infiltration developing within the scope of the peripheral zone clearly extends beyond the prostate capsule
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392554&req=5

f0017: The transrectal examination of the prostate. The hypoechogenic infiltration developing within the scope of the peripheral zone clearly extends beyond the prostate capsule
Mentions: The group of cancers which are assessed as T1 includes tumors which are clinically not apparent, imperceptible in palpation examinations of the prostate, not visible in imaging examinations. The neoplasms which are confined within the prostate are classified in the T2 group and those extending beyond the prostate capsule – in the T3 group (with taking into consideration the microscopic infiltration of the urinary bladder cervix – T3a, the seminal vesicles – T3b). Immobile (fixed) tumors or tumors infiltrating tissues other than seminal vesicles, e.g. the external urethral sphincter, the rectum, the levatori ani muscles or the pelvic wall are qualified in the T4 group (Fig. 15, 16, 17, 18).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13%) among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency) in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy – from the neurovascular bundles, the seminal vesicles, from the apex of the prostate and from the periprostatic tissue – this type of biopsy is supposed to help in determining local staging of the neoplastic disease. The ultrasound examination is also helpful during the treatment of the neoplasm performed using brachytherapy or using the method of ultrasonic ablation which is still in the phase of clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.