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The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13%) among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency) in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy – from the neurovascular bundles, the seminal vesicles, from the apex of the prostate and from the periprostatic tissue – this type of biopsy is supposed to help in determining local staging of the neoplastic disease. The ultrasound examination is also helpful during the treatment of the neoplasm performed using brachytherapy or using the method of ultrasonic ablation which is still in the phase of clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


An ultrasound examination performed using an endorectal probe. A, B. Transverse sections of the prostate gland; C, D. A longitudinal section of the prostate
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f0001: An ultrasound examination performed using an endorectal probe. A, B. Transverse sections of the prostate gland; C, D. A longitudinal section of the prostate

Mentions: The diagnose is based on the taken history, the physical examination which includes the palpation examination of the prostate performed per rectum (digital rectal examination, DRE) and additional examinations, i.a. imaging, especially ultrasound examinations. The ultrasound examinations include transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) of the urinary organs and the prostate with the assessment of the presence of residual urine after voiding and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) (Fig. 1). According to the indications of the European Association of Urology (EAU) the examinations recommended in the course of benign prostatic hyperplasia include the measurement of the volume of residual urine present in the bladder after voiding performed during transabdominal ultrasonography; and in the group of supplementary examinations – the ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract and transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate. Ultrasound examinations are recommended for the assessment of the staging of the disease. The EAU recommends the measurement of the residual urine after voiding (TAUS) and the measurement of the volume of the prostate performed using transrectal ultrasonography. The ultrasound assessment of the size of the prostate is helpful in the selection of the method of treatment – in accordance with the recommendations of the EAU glands with a volume lower than 80 cm3 are qualified for transurethral electroresection and glands of a higher volume – for open surgery – adenomectomy.


The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2
An ultrasound examination performed using an endorectal probe. A, B. Transverse sections of the prostate gland; C, D. A longitudinal section of the prostate
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392554&req=5

f0001: An ultrasound examination performed using an endorectal probe. A, B. Transverse sections of the prostate gland; C, D. A longitudinal section of the prostate
Mentions: The diagnose is based on the taken history, the physical examination which includes the palpation examination of the prostate performed per rectum (digital rectal examination, DRE) and additional examinations, i.a. imaging, especially ultrasound examinations. The ultrasound examinations include transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) of the urinary organs and the prostate with the assessment of the presence of residual urine after voiding and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) (Fig. 1). According to the indications of the European Association of Urology (EAU) the examinations recommended in the course of benign prostatic hyperplasia include the measurement of the volume of residual urine present in the bladder after voiding performed during transabdominal ultrasonography; and in the group of supplementary examinations – the ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract and transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate. Ultrasound examinations are recommended for the assessment of the staging of the disease. The EAU recommends the measurement of the residual urine after voiding (TAUS) and the measurement of the volume of the prostate performed using transrectal ultrasonography. The ultrasound assessment of the size of the prostate is helpful in the selection of the method of treatment – in accordance with the recommendations of the EAU glands with a volume lower than 80 cm3 are qualified for transurethral electroresection and glands of a higher volume – for open surgery – adenomectomy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13%) among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency) in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy – from the neurovascular bundles, the seminal vesicles, from the apex of the prostate and from the periprostatic tissue – this type of biopsy is supposed to help in determining local staging of the neoplastic disease. The ultrasound examination is also helpful during the treatment of the neoplasm performed using brachytherapy or using the method of ultrasonic ablation which is still in the phase of clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.