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Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non ‐ exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one ‐ armed cranking

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ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non‐contracting arm muscles during contralateral one‐armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non‐exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated‐hemoglobin concentration (Oxy‐Hb) of the non‐contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one‐armed cranking (intensity, 35–40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one‐armed exercise for 1 min. Voluntary one‐armed cranking increased (P < 0.05) the Oxy‐Hb of the triceps, biceps, and ECR muscles to the same extent (15 ± 4% of the baseline level, 17 ± 5%, and 16 ± 4%, respectively). The greatest increase in the Oxy‐Hb was observed in the deltoid muscle. Intravenous injection of atropine (10–15 μg/kg) and/or propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) revealed that the increased Oxy‐Hb of the arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine‐sensitive and delayed propranolol‐sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy‐Hb of the arm muscles. Motor‐driven passive one‐armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy‐Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non‐contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one‐armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison in the average Oxy‐Hb responses among the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking (A) and cranking imagery (B) in 13 subjects. Values are mean ± SE. † Significant difference (P < 0.05) between the muscles. In both voluntary cranking exercise and cranking imagery, any of the Oxy‐Hb responses was significant from the baseline level.
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phy213237-fig-0004: Comparison in the average Oxy‐Hb responses among the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking (A) and cranking imagery (B) in 13 subjects. Values are mean ± SE. † Significant difference (P < 0.05) between the muscles. In both voluntary cranking exercise and cranking imagery, any of the Oxy‐Hb responses was significant from the baseline level.

Mentions: Figures 3 and 4 summarize the time courses and magnitudes of the Oxy‐Hb responses in the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking. The Oxy‐Hb of the four arm muscles increased (P < 0.05) at the early period of exercise and reached the peak approximately at the middle of the exercise period. The Oxy‐Hb response in the deltoid muscle was much greater (P < 0.05) than the remaining arm muscles (Figs. 3 and 4). On the other hand, the peak increase in the Oxy‐Hb was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the distal arm muscles (triceps, 15 ± 4%; biceps, 17 ± 5%; ECR, 16 ± 4%, respectively). The Deoxy‐Hb of all arm muscles decreased (P < 0.05) during the exercise (Fig. 3).


Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non ‐ exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one ‐ armed cranking
Comparison in the average Oxy‐Hb responses among the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking (A) and cranking imagery (B) in 13 subjects. Values are mean ± SE. † Significant difference (P < 0.05) between the muscles. In both voluntary cranking exercise and cranking imagery, any of the Oxy‐Hb responses was significant from the baseline level.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392523&req=5

phy213237-fig-0004: Comparison in the average Oxy‐Hb responses among the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking (A) and cranking imagery (B) in 13 subjects. Values are mean ± SE. † Significant difference (P < 0.05) between the muscles. In both voluntary cranking exercise and cranking imagery, any of the Oxy‐Hb responses was significant from the baseline level.
Mentions: Figures 3 and 4 summarize the time courses and magnitudes of the Oxy‐Hb responses in the non‐contracting arm muscles during voluntary one‐armed cranking. The Oxy‐Hb of the four arm muscles increased (P < 0.05) at the early period of exercise and reached the peak approximately at the middle of the exercise period. The Oxy‐Hb response in the deltoid muscle was much greater (P < 0.05) than the remaining arm muscles (Figs. 3 and 4). On the other hand, the peak increase in the Oxy‐Hb was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the distal arm muscles (triceps, 15 ± 4%; biceps, 17 ± 5%; ECR, 16 ± 4%, respectively). The Deoxy‐Hb of all arm muscles decreased (P < 0.05) during the exercise (Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non&#8208;contracting arm muscles during contralateral one&#8208;armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non&#8208;exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated&#8208;hemoglobin concentration (Oxy&#8208;Hb) of the non&#8208;contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one&#8208;armed cranking (intensity, 35&ndash;40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one&#8208;armed exercise for 1&nbsp;min. Voluntary one&#8208;armed cranking increased (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05) the Oxy&#8208;Hb of the triceps, biceps, and ECR muscles to the same extent (15&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;4% of the baseline level, 17&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;5%, and 16&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;4%, respectively). The greatest increase in the Oxy&#8208;Hb was observed in the deltoid muscle. Intravenous injection of atropine (10&ndash;15&nbsp;&mu;g/kg) and/or propranolol (0.1&nbsp;mg/kg) revealed that the increased Oxy&#8208;Hb of the arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine&#8208;sensitive and delayed propranolol&#8208;sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy&#8208;Hb of the arm muscles. Motor&#8208;driven passive one&#8208;armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy&#8208;Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non&#8208;contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one&#8208;armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle.

No MeSH data available.