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Moderate (20%) fructose ‐ enriched diet stimulates salt ‐ sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide

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ABSTRACT

Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt‐sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt‐sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P < 0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P < 0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935 ± 256 μmol/24 h in high salt‐fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P < 0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt‐sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability.

No MeSH data available.


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Water balance. Water intake (A, upper panel) increased only in the 20% glucose plus high salt diet during the first week. However, water intake increased during the second week in all three groups receiving a high salt diet. (*P < 0.05 consumption vs. the previous week). Daily urine volume (B, lower panel) increased as the volume consumed increased. Urine volume increased significantly in the 20% glucose plus high salt group in the first week. Urine volumes increased in all three high salt‐treated groups during the second week. (*P < 0.05, as measured within same group from previous week).
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phy213162-fig-0003: Water balance. Water intake (A, upper panel) increased only in the 20% glucose plus high salt diet during the first week. However, water intake increased during the second week in all three groups receiving a high salt diet. (*P < 0.05 consumption vs. the previous week). Daily urine volume (B, lower panel) increased as the volume consumed increased. Urine volume increased significantly in the 20% glucose plus high salt group in the first week. Urine volumes increased in all three high salt‐treated groups during the second week. (*P < 0.05, as measured within same group from previous week).

Mentions: During baseline, there were no differences in the amount of water consumed across the five groups (Fig. 3A). In the first week of the fructose/glucose protocol, water consumption in the C group decreased (Table 3A). In F, F + HS, and HS groups, water consumption remained constant. However, the G + HS group increased water consumption by 39% (P < 0.0001) with the addition of 20% glucose to the water. During the second week (with salt), water consumption in the C group was unchanged. Water consumption increased in the F group 2 by 10% (P < 0.01). As expected with the addition of the high salt diet to F + HS < HS and G + HS during week 2, (Table 3A) water consumption increased.


Moderate (20%) fructose ‐ enriched diet stimulates salt ‐ sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide
Water balance. Water intake (A, upper panel) increased only in the 20% glucose plus high salt diet during the first week. However, water intake increased during the second week in all three groups receiving a high salt diet. (*P < 0.05 consumption vs. the previous week). Daily urine volume (B, lower panel) increased as the volume consumed increased. Urine volume increased significantly in the 20% glucose plus high salt group in the first week. Urine volumes increased in all three high salt‐treated groups during the second week. (*P < 0.05, as measured within same group from previous week).
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phy213162-fig-0003: Water balance. Water intake (A, upper panel) increased only in the 20% glucose plus high salt diet during the first week. However, water intake increased during the second week in all three groups receiving a high salt diet. (*P < 0.05 consumption vs. the previous week). Daily urine volume (B, lower panel) increased as the volume consumed increased. Urine volume increased significantly in the 20% glucose plus high salt group in the first week. Urine volumes increased in all three high salt‐treated groups during the second week. (*P < 0.05, as measured within same group from previous week).
Mentions: During baseline, there were no differences in the amount of water consumed across the five groups (Fig. 3A). In the first week of the fructose/glucose protocol, water consumption in the C group decreased (Table 3A). In F, F + HS, and HS groups, water consumption remained constant. However, the G + HS group increased water consumption by 39% (P < 0.0001) with the addition of 20% glucose to the water. During the second week (with salt), water consumption in the C group was unchanged. Water consumption increased in the F group 2 by 10% (P < 0.01). As expected with the addition of the high salt diet to F + HS < HS and G + HS during week 2, (Table 3A) water consumption increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt&#8208;sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt&#8208;sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5&nbsp;days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2&nbsp;weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2&nbsp;weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1&nbsp;week, then fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt (4% NaCl) for 1&nbsp;week, (4) normal chow for 1&nbsp;week, then high salt for 1&nbsp;week, (5) 20% glucose for 1&nbsp;week, then glucose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt for 1&nbsp;week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;1 to 140&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;2&nbsp;mmHg (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt than either high salt, or glucose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt (114.2&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;4.4 vs. 103.6&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;2.2 and 98.6&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;5.6&nbsp;mEq/Day19; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;0.21 versus 7.67&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;0.31&nbsp;mmol/24&nbsp;h; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;256&nbsp;&mu;mol/24&nbsp;h in high salt&#8208;fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt group (2139&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;178&nbsp;&mu;mol /24&nbsp;hrs P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt&#8208;sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus