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Moderate (20%) fructose ‐ enriched diet stimulates salt ‐ sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt‐sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt‐sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P < 0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P < 0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935 ± 256 μmol/24 h in high salt‐fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P < 0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt‐sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability.

No MeSH data available.


Systolic blood pressure over the study period. With the addition of high salt chow in week 2, systolic blood pressure in the 20% fructose plus high salt group increased significantly. However, blood pressure was unchanged in all other groups, including both the high salt control and 20% glucose plus high salt groups. (*P < 0.05 vs. previous period).
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phy213162-fig-0001: Systolic blood pressure over the study period. With the addition of high salt chow in week 2, systolic blood pressure in the 20% fructose plus high salt group increased significantly. However, blood pressure was unchanged in all other groups, including both the high salt control and 20% glucose plus high salt groups. (*P < 0.05 vs. previous period).

Mentions: systolic blood pressure in the five groups at baseline were: C) 121 ± 2, F) 122 ± 2, F + HS) 122 ± 1, HS) 122 ± 1, and G+HS) 125 ± 1 mmHg (Fig. 1). There were no differences between groups in systolic blood pressure at baseline. Initiation of experimental diets: 20% fructose (F and F + HS) and 20% glucose (G + HS) started after baseline measurements were obtained. At the end of the first week of experimental diets, systolic blood pressure remained unchanged in all five groups: C) 124 ± 3, F) 126 ± 2, F+HS) 125 ± 1, HS) 122 ± 1, and G + HS) 124 ± 2 mmHg. At the beginning of the second week of experimental diets, normal chow was replaced with a 4% high salt diet in the F + HS, HS, and G + HS groups. Systolic blood pressure by the end of week 2 were: C) 122 ± 2, F) 128 ± 1, F+HS) 140 ± 2, HS) 122 ± 1, and G + HS 125 ± 1. Blood pressure significantly increased only in the 20% fructose plus high salt group (125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.01) while systolic pressure the HS and G + HS groups remained unchanged (Fig. 1) in response to the addition of high salt to the diet. Overall, 20% fructose in the presence of high salt increased blood pressure while fructose alone, glucose or high salt alone had no effect on systolic blood pressure during the protocol.


Moderate (20%) fructose ‐ enriched diet stimulates salt ‐ sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide
Systolic blood pressure over the study period. With the addition of high salt chow in week 2, systolic blood pressure in the 20% fructose plus high salt group increased significantly. However, blood pressure was unchanged in all other groups, including both the high salt control and 20% glucose plus high salt groups. (*P < 0.05 vs. previous period).
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phy213162-fig-0001: Systolic blood pressure over the study period. With the addition of high salt chow in week 2, systolic blood pressure in the 20% fructose plus high salt group increased significantly. However, blood pressure was unchanged in all other groups, including both the high salt control and 20% glucose plus high salt groups. (*P < 0.05 vs. previous period).
Mentions: systolic blood pressure in the five groups at baseline were: C) 121 ± 2, F) 122 ± 2, F + HS) 122 ± 1, HS) 122 ± 1, and G+HS) 125 ± 1 mmHg (Fig. 1). There were no differences between groups in systolic blood pressure at baseline. Initiation of experimental diets: 20% fructose (F and F + HS) and 20% glucose (G + HS) started after baseline measurements were obtained. At the end of the first week of experimental diets, systolic blood pressure remained unchanged in all five groups: C) 124 ± 3, F) 126 ± 2, F+HS) 125 ± 1, HS) 122 ± 1, and G + HS) 124 ± 2 mmHg. At the beginning of the second week of experimental diets, normal chow was replaced with a 4% high salt diet in the F + HS, HS, and G + HS groups. Systolic blood pressure by the end of week 2 were: C) 122 ± 2, F) 128 ± 1, F+HS) 140 ± 2, HS) 122 ± 1, and G + HS 125 ± 1. Blood pressure significantly increased only in the 20% fructose plus high salt group (125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.01) while systolic pressure the HS and G + HS groups remained unchanged (Fig. 1) in response to the addition of high salt to the diet. Overall, 20% fructose in the presence of high salt increased blood pressure while fructose alone, glucose or high salt alone had no effect on systolic blood pressure during the protocol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt&#8208;sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt&#8208;sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5&nbsp;days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2&nbsp;weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2&nbsp;weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1&nbsp;week, then fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt (4% NaCl) for 1&nbsp;week, (4) normal chow for 1&nbsp;week, then high salt for 1&nbsp;week, (5) 20% glucose for 1&nbsp;week, then glucose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt for 1&nbsp;week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;1 to 140&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;2&nbsp;mmHg (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt than either high salt, or glucose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt (114.2&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;4.4 vs. 103.6&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;2.2 and 98.6&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;5.6&nbsp;mEq/Day19; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;0.21 versus 7.67&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;0.31&nbsp;mmol/24&nbsp;h; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;256&nbsp;&mu;mol/24&nbsp;h in high salt&#8208;fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose&nbsp;+&nbsp;high salt group (2139&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;178&nbsp;&mu;mol /24&nbsp;hrs P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt&#8208;sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability.

No MeSH data available.