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Characterization of the gut microbiota in the golden takin ( Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi )

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota of mammals is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and the host’s health. The high throughput sequencing allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the bacterial structure and diversity. In order to improve the health status of the endangered golden takins, we first characterized the fecal microbiota of healthy golden takins using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V3–V4 hypervariable regions. Our results showed that, Firstly, the gut microbiota community comprised 21 phyla, 40 classes, 62 orders, 96 families, and 216 genera. Firmicutes (67.59%) was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes (23.57%) and Proteobacteria (2.37%). Secondly, the golden takin maintained higher richness in spring than in the winter while community diversity and evenness was not significantly different. Thirdly, four female golden takins demonstrated highly similar microbiota and the five golden takin males had relatively highly similar microbiota. All of our results might indicate that the fecal microbiota of golden takins were influenced by the season and the animal’s sex. The findings provided theoretical basis regarding the gut microbiota of golden takins and may offer new insights to protect this endangered species.

No MeSH data available.


Double dendrogram showing the bacterial distribution among the fecal samples of nine golden takins. The abundances of the top 35 genera were sorted for the analysis. The heatmap plot depicts the relative percentage of each bacterial genus (variables clustering on the y-axis) within each sample (x-axis clustering). The relative values for the bacterial genus are depicted by color intensity in the legend indicated at the top right of the figure. Clusters based on the distance of the nine samples along the x-axis and the bacterial genera along the y-axis are indicated in the upper part and left of the figure, respectively. Different colors on the x-axis represent different groups, and different colors on the y-axis represent which phylum they belong to. The meaning of the different colors is indicated at the top right of the figure
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Fig4: Double dendrogram showing the bacterial distribution among the fecal samples of nine golden takins. The abundances of the top 35 genera were sorted for the analysis. The heatmap plot depicts the relative percentage of each bacterial genus (variables clustering on the y-axis) within each sample (x-axis clustering). The relative values for the bacterial genus are depicted by color intensity in the legend indicated at the top right of the figure. Clusters based on the distance of the nine samples along the x-axis and the bacterial genera along the y-axis are indicated in the upper part and left of the figure, respectively. Different colors on the x-axis represent different groups, and different colors on the y-axis represent which phylum they belong to. The meaning of the different colors is indicated at the top right of the figure

Mentions: To know the bacterial community profiles at the genus level, we plotted a clustered heatmap. The result indicated that the sample J1, J2, J3 and J4 (group A) grouped together, while the sample J5, J6, J7 and J8 (group B) clustered together (Fig. 4). To compare the microbial communities across the different samples, we plotted another heatmap based on Weighted Unifrac and Unweighted Unifrac distances (Fig. 5). The similarity of the samples was consistent with the clustering results. In addition, the PCA score plot revealed the separation of group A from group B (Fig. 6), which was consistent with the heatmap results.Fig. 4


Characterization of the gut microbiota in the golden takin ( Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi )
Double dendrogram showing the bacterial distribution among the fecal samples of nine golden takins. The abundances of the top 35 genera were sorted for the analysis. The heatmap plot depicts the relative percentage of each bacterial genus (variables clustering on the y-axis) within each sample (x-axis clustering). The relative values for the bacterial genus are depicted by color intensity in the legend indicated at the top right of the figure. Clusters based on the distance of the nine samples along the x-axis and the bacterial genera along the y-axis are indicated in the upper part and left of the figure, respectively. Different colors on the x-axis represent different groups, and different colors on the y-axis represent which phylum they belong to. The meaning of the different colors is indicated at the top right of the figure
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392452&req=5

Fig4: Double dendrogram showing the bacterial distribution among the fecal samples of nine golden takins. The abundances of the top 35 genera were sorted for the analysis. The heatmap plot depicts the relative percentage of each bacterial genus (variables clustering on the y-axis) within each sample (x-axis clustering). The relative values for the bacterial genus are depicted by color intensity in the legend indicated at the top right of the figure. Clusters based on the distance of the nine samples along the x-axis and the bacterial genera along the y-axis are indicated in the upper part and left of the figure, respectively. Different colors on the x-axis represent different groups, and different colors on the y-axis represent which phylum they belong to. The meaning of the different colors is indicated at the top right of the figure
Mentions: To know the bacterial community profiles at the genus level, we plotted a clustered heatmap. The result indicated that the sample J1, J2, J3 and J4 (group A) grouped together, while the sample J5, J6, J7 and J8 (group B) clustered together (Fig. 4). To compare the microbial communities across the different samples, we plotted another heatmap based on Weighted Unifrac and Unweighted Unifrac distances (Fig. 5). The similarity of the samples was consistent with the clustering results. In addition, the PCA score plot revealed the separation of group A from group B (Fig. 6), which was consistent with the heatmap results.Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota of mammals is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and the host’s health. The high throughput sequencing allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the bacterial structure and diversity. In order to improve the health status of the endangered golden takins, we first characterized the fecal microbiota of healthy golden takins using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V3–V4 hypervariable regions. Our results showed that, Firstly, the gut microbiota community comprised 21 phyla, 40 classes, 62 orders, 96 families, and 216 genera. Firmicutes (67.59%) was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes (23.57%) and Proteobacteria (2.37%). Secondly, the golden takin maintained higher richness in spring than in the winter while community diversity and evenness was not significantly different. Thirdly, four female golden takins demonstrated highly similar microbiota and the five golden takin males had relatively highly similar microbiota. All of our results might indicate that the fecal microbiota of golden takins were influenced by the season and the animal’s sex. The findings provided theoretical basis regarding the gut microbiota of golden takins and may offer new insights to protect this endangered species.

No MeSH data available.