Limits...
Characterization of the gut microbiota in the golden takin ( Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi )

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota of mammals is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and the host’s health. The high throughput sequencing allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the bacterial structure and diversity. In order to improve the health status of the endangered golden takins, we first characterized the fecal microbiota of healthy golden takins using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V3–V4 hypervariable regions. Our results showed that, Firstly, the gut microbiota community comprised 21 phyla, 40 classes, 62 orders, 96 families, and 216 genera. Firmicutes (67.59%) was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes (23.57%) and Proteobacteria (2.37%). Secondly, the golden takin maintained higher richness in spring than in the winter while community diversity and evenness was not significantly different. Thirdly, four female golden takins demonstrated highly similar microbiota and the five golden takin males had relatively highly similar microbiota. All of our results might indicate that the fecal microbiota of golden takins were influenced by the season and the animal’s sex. The findings provided theoretical basis regarding the gut microbiota of golden takins and may offer new insights to protect this endangered species.

No MeSH data available.


Rarefaction curve analysis of nine golden takins. Repeated samples of OTU subsets were performed to evaluate whether further sampling would likely yield additional taxa, as indicated by whether the curve reached a plateau value. The y-axis indicates the number of OTUs detected, and the x-axis indicates the number of taxa in the sequence subset analyzed. Rank abundance curves were used to estimate the richness and evenness of taxa present in the samples. The y-axis indicates the relative abundance of OTUs, and the x-axis indicates the number of OTUs according to the relative abundance from large to small. The larger the span curve on the x-axis, the higher the species richness. The smoother the curve on the y-axis, the more even the species distribution
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392452&req=5

Fig1: Rarefaction curve analysis of nine golden takins. Repeated samples of OTU subsets were performed to evaluate whether further sampling would likely yield additional taxa, as indicated by whether the curve reached a plateau value. The y-axis indicates the number of OTUs detected, and the x-axis indicates the number of taxa in the sequence subset analyzed. Rank abundance curves were used to estimate the richness and evenness of taxa present in the samples. The y-axis indicates the relative abundance of OTUs, and the x-axis indicates the number of OTUs according to the relative abundance from large to small. The larger the span curve on the x-axis, the higher the species richness. The smoother the curve on the y-axis, the more even the species distribution

Mentions: During quality control, a total of 670,356 high-quality sequences with an average length of 410 bp per sample were obtained from the nine fecal samples. The statistical estimates of species richness for the sequences from the nine samples that demonstrated a genetic distance of 3%, the total number of sequences, the coverage, and the number of OTUs were shown in Table 2. The rarefaction curves and rank abundance curves were generated using R software (Version 2.15.3). The rarefaction curves tended to approach the saturation plateau, while the rank abundance curves revealed a few dominant taxa and many low-abundance taxa comprising the bacterial community of the golden takin (Fig. 1). Based on ANOSIM analysis, significant differences were observed in bacterial community structure between group A and group B (P < 0.05). When analyzing differences between the two groups, the Alpha diversity index and box-plots intuitively reflected the median, degree of dispersion, maximum, minimum and outlier of species diversity within groups. The number of species in group A was lower than that in group B (Fig. 2), and this difference was significant (P < 0.05). However the difference of the community diversity and the species distribution uniformity between two groups were not significant (P > 0.05).Table 2


Characterization of the gut microbiota in the golden takin ( Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi )
Rarefaction curve analysis of nine golden takins. Repeated samples of OTU subsets were performed to evaluate whether further sampling would likely yield additional taxa, as indicated by whether the curve reached a plateau value. The y-axis indicates the number of OTUs detected, and the x-axis indicates the number of taxa in the sequence subset analyzed. Rank abundance curves were used to estimate the richness and evenness of taxa present in the samples. The y-axis indicates the relative abundance of OTUs, and the x-axis indicates the number of OTUs according to the relative abundance from large to small. The larger the span curve on the x-axis, the higher the species richness. The smoother the curve on the y-axis, the more even the species distribution
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5392452&req=5

Fig1: Rarefaction curve analysis of nine golden takins. Repeated samples of OTU subsets were performed to evaluate whether further sampling would likely yield additional taxa, as indicated by whether the curve reached a plateau value. The y-axis indicates the number of OTUs detected, and the x-axis indicates the number of taxa in the sequence subset analyzed. Rank abundance curves were used to estimate the richness and evenness of taxa present in the samples. The y-axis indicates the relative abundance of OTUs, and the x-axis indicates the number of OTUs according to the relative abundance from large to small. The larger the span curve on the x-axis, the higher the species richness. The smoother the curve on the y-axis, the more even the species distribution
Mentions: During quality control, a total of 670,356 high-quality sequences with an average length of 410 bp per sample were obtained from the nine fecal samples. The statistical estimates of species richness for the sequences from the nine samples that demonstrated a genetic distance of 3%, the total number of sequences, the coverage, and the number of OTUs were shown in Table 2. The rarefaction curves and rank abundance curves were generated using R software (Version 2.15.3). The rarefaction curves tended to approach the saturation plateau, while the rank abundance curves revealed a few dominant taxa and many low-abundance taxa comprising the bacterial community of the golden takin (Fig. 1). Based on ANOSIM analysis, significant differences were observed in bacterial community structure between group A and group B (P < 0.05). When analyzing differences between the two groups, the Alpha diversity index and box-plots intuitively reflected the median, degree of dispersion, maximum, minimum and outlier of species diversity within groups. The number of species in group A was lower than that in group B (Fig. 2), and this difference was significant (P < 0.05). However the difference of the community diversity and the species distribution uniformity between two groups were not significant (P > 0.05).Table 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota of mammals is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and the host&rsquo;s health. The high throughput sequencing allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the bacterial structure and diversity. In order to improve the health status of the endangered golden takins, we first characterized the fecal microbiota of healthy golden takins using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V3&ndash;V4 hypervariable regions. Our results showed that, Firstly, the gut microbiota community comprised 21 phyla, 40 classes, 62 orders, 96 families, and 216 genera. Firmicutes (67.59%) was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes (23.57%) and Proteobacteria (2.37%). Secondly, the golden takin maintained higher richness in spring than in the winter while community diversity and evenness was not significantly different. Thirdly, four female golden takins demonstrated highly similar microbiota and the five golden takin males had relatively highly similar microbiota. All of our results might indicate that the fecal microbiota of golden takins were influenced by the season and the animal&rsquo;s sex. The findings provided theoretical basis regarding the gut microbiota of golden takins and may offer new insights to protect this endangered species.

No MeSH data available.