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Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia

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ABSTRACT

The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively.

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Decay in the similarity of orchid-bee assemblages in relation to the geographic A or B environmental distance between sampling sites.Geographic distance is the distance in km between paired sites. Environmental distance is the Euclidean distance between paired sites with respect to three climatic variables (average annual temperature, average annual precipitation, and precipitation seasonality). Similarity in orchid-bee species composition is based on the Bray–Curtis Index of similarity. Lines represent the logarithmic regression curve.
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pone.0175884.g005: Decay in the similarity of orchid-bee assemblages in relation to the geographic A or B environmental distance between sampling sites.Geographic distance is the distance in km between paired sites. Environmental distance is the Euclidean distance between paired sites with respect to three climatic variables (average annual temperature, average annual precipitation, and precipitation seasonality). Similarity in orchid-bee species composition is based on the Bray–Curtis Index of similarity. Lines represent the logarithmic regression curve.

Mentions: The level of pairwise similarity among the nine bee communities sampled was highly variable, ranging from 20.0 to 61.1% (Bray-Curtis Index, mean = 40.7%) when considering the total abundance of the 30 most frequent species. Similar results were obtained when considering the presence or absence of all 55 recorded species (Jaccard index: mean = 40.3%, range = 17.0–70.3%). Similarity in orchid bee species composition among the different pairs of plateaus decayed both as function of climatic (R = -0.34, p = 0.03) (Fig 5A) and geographic distances among sites (R = -0.53, p<0.001; Fig 5B). The greatest dissimilarities in bee assemblage composition were observed among pairs of sites located 20–30 km from each other (Monte Branco and Bacaba) (see Fig 1). There was a positive and statistically significant relationship between the number of trees and orchid bee species richness (R2 = 0.48, p = 0.036).


Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia
Decay in the similarity of orchid-bee assemblages in relation to the geographic A or B environmental distance between sampling sites.Geographic distance is the distance in km between paired sites. Environmental distance is the Euclidean distance between paired sites with respect to three climatic variables (average annual temperature, average annual precipitation, and precipitation seasonality). Similarity in orchid-bee species composition is based on the Bray–Curtis Index of similarity. Lines represent the logarithmic regression curve.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391963&req=5

pone.0175884.g005: Decay in the similarity of orchid-bee assemblages in relation to the geographic A or B environmental distance between sampling sites.Geographic distance is the distance in km between paired sites. Environmental distance is the Euclidean distance between paired sites with respect to three climatic variables (average annual temperature, average annual precipitation, and precipitation seasonality). Similarity in orchid-bee species composition is based on the Bray–Curtis Index of similarity. Lines represent the logarithmic regression curve.
Mentions: The level of pairwise similarity among the nine bee communities sampled was highly variable, ranging from 20.0 to 61.1% (Bray-Curtis Index, mean = 40.7%) when considering the total abundance of the 30 most frequent species. Similar results were obtained when considering the presence or absence of all 55 recorded species (Jaccard index: mean = 40.3%, range = 17.0–70.3%). Similarity in orchid bee species composition among the different pairs of plateaus decayed both as function of climatic (R = -0.34, p = 0.03) (Fig 5A) and geographic distances among sites (R = -0.53, p<0.001; Fig 5B). The greatest dissimilarities in bee assemblage composition were observed among pairs of sites located 20–30 km from each other (Monte Branco and Bacaba) (see Fig 1). There was a positive and statistically significant relationship between the number of trees and orchid bee species richness (R2 = 0.48, p = 0.036).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus