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Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest

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ABSTRACT

Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

No MeSH data available.


Coalescent Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) used to infer demographic history of P. seridoensis population groups.Black horizontal line shows median BSP estimate and blue area shows upper and lower 95% highest posterior density limits.
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pone.0175725.g002: Coalescent Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) used to infer demographic history of P. seridoensis population groups.Black horizontal line shows median BSP estimate and blue area shows upper and lower 95% highest posterior density limits.

Mentions: The coalescent-based analysis considering all P. seridoensis populations indicated a TMRCA of 163 kya (highest posterior density [HPD 95%:]: 87.8–257.6 kya), suggesting that this could be the initial diversification time for the two P. seridoensis lineages analyzed herein. The TMRCA for each group indicated a recent age for these two lineages, with coalescence of northwestern and eastern groups respectively occurring 84.5 kya (HPD 95%: 35.7–149.6 kya) and 106.9 kya (HPD 95%: 49.3–180.5 kya). The BSP did not reveal any substantial fluctuations in the effective population size (Ne) in either haplogroup (Fig 2).


Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest
Coalescent Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) used to infer demographic history of P. seridoensis population groups.Black horizontal line shows median BSP estimate and blue area shows upper and lower 95% highest posterior density limits.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391937&req=5

pone.0175725.g002: Coalescent Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) used to infer demographic history of P. seridoensis population groups.Black horizontal line shows median BSP estimate and blue area shows upper and lower 95% highest posterior density limits.
Mentions: The coalescent-based analysis considering all P. seridoensis populations indicated a TMRCA of 163 kya (highest posterior density [HPD 95%:]: 87.8–257.6 kya), suggesting that this could be the initial diversification time for the two P. seridoensis lineages analyzed herein. The TMRCA for each group indicated a recent age for these two lineages, with coalescence of northwestern and eastern groups respectively occurring 84.5 kya (HPD 95%: 35.7–149.6 kya) and 106.9 kya (HPD 95%: 49.3–180.5 kya). The BSP did not reveal any substantial fluctuations in the effective population size (Ne) in either haplogroup (Fig 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

No MeSH data available.