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Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest

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ABSTRACT

Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

No MeSH data available.


Geographical distribution of P. seridoensis populations (A). Samples are indicated by circle and number and listed according to Table 1. Bayesian inference using concatenated COI and Cytb mitochondrial gene regions in P. seridoensis and outgroups (B). Median-joining haplotype network in P. seridoensis (C).Caatinga area is represented by downward diagonal lines and the dotted line represents the geographical distribution of P. seridoensis [9] in A. Bayesian implementations of the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (bGMYC) for P. seridoensis, shown in B. Two lines represent two mutation steps between haplotypes and no line between haplotypes represents one mutation step in C. Gray color represents northwestern haplogroup and black color represents eastern haplogroup (in all figures).
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pone.0175725.g001: Geographical distribution of P. seridoensis populations (A). Samples are indicated by circle and number and listed according to Table 1. Bayesian inference using concatenated COI and Cytb mitochondrial gene regions in P. seridoensis and outgroups (B). Median-joining haplotype network in P. seridoensis (C).Caatinga area is represented by downward diagonal lines and the dotted line represents the geographical distribution of P. seridoensis [9] in A. Bayesian implementations of the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (bGMYC) for P. seridoensis, shown in B. Two lines represent two mutation steps between haplotypes and no line between haplotypes represents one mutation step in C. Gray color represents northwestern haplogroup and black color represents eastern haplogroup (in all figures).

Mentions: Adult workers were collected from P. seridoensis nests from March 2008 to August 2014. Through active searches, 84 nests were sampled from 17 localities in the northeastern region of Brazil, with an average of five nests per locality (Table 1 and Fig 1A). The sampled localities were chosen through prior knowledge of occurrence records available on online database and others studies as well as through our active searches. In each locality where nests of P. seridoensis were sampled, we look for nests distant from each other at least 300 meters to avoid high kinship between them. All specimens were preserved in ethanol prior to the molecular analyses and vouchers were deposited in the Camargo Entomological Collection at the Universidade de São Paulo (FFCLRP—USP) and in the Laboratório de Genética Evolutiva de Himenópteros at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos (LGEH–UFSCar). All necessary research permits for fieldwork and collection of samples were issued by the Brazilian Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade—ICMBio) recorded by SISBio (permit number 31750). Field studies did not involve endangered or protected species.


Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest
Geographical distribution of P. seridoensis populations (A). Samples are indicated by circle and number and listed according to Table 1. Bayesian inference using concatenated COI and Cytb mitochondrial gene regions in P. seridoensis and outgroups (B). Median-joining haplotype network in P. seridoensis (C).Caatinga area is represented by downward diagonal lines and the dotted line represents the geographical distribution of P. seridoensis [9] in A. Bayesian implementations of the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (bGMYC) for P. seridoensis, shown in B. Two lines represent two mutation steps between haplotypes and no line between haplotypes represents one mutation step in C. Gray color represents northwestern haplogroup and black color represents eastern haplogroup (in all figures).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391937&req=5

pone.0175725.g001: Geographical distribution of P. seridoensis populations (A). Samples are indicated by circle and number and listed according to Table 1. Bayesian inference using concatenated COI and Cytb mitochondrial gene regions in P. seridoensis and outgroups (B). Median-joining haplotype network in P. seridoensis (C).Caatinga area is represented by downward diagonal lines and the dotted line represents the geographical distribution of P. seridoensis [9] in A. Bayesian implementations of the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (bGMYC) for P. seridoensis, shown in B. Two lines represent two mutation steps between haplotypes and no line between haplotypes represents one mutation step in C. Gray color represents northwestern haplogroup and black color represents eastern haplogroup (in all figures).
Mentions: Adult workers were collected from P. seridoensis nests from March 2008 to August 2014. Through active searches, 84 nests were sampled from 17 localities in the northeastern region of Brazil, with an average of five nests per locality (Table 1 and Fig 1A). The sampled localities were chosen through prior knowledge of occurrence records available on online database and others studies as well as through our active searches. In each locality where nests of P. seridoensis were sampled, we look for nests distant from each other at least 300 meters to avoid high kinship between them. All specimens were preserved in ethanol prior to the molecular analyses and vouchers were deposited in the Camargo Entomological Collection at the Universidade de São Paulo (FFCLRP—USP) and in the Laboratório de Genética Evolutiva de Himenópteros at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos (LGEH–UFSCar). All necessary research permits for fieldwork and collection of samples were issued by the Brazilian Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade—ICMBio) recorded by SISBio (permit number 31750). Field studies did not involve endangered or protected species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

No MeSH data available.