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Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree ( Pinus armandii )

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum) on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91%) and ectomycorrhizae (97.64%) was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum.

No MeSH data available.


Heat-map analysis of the 35 most abundant bacterial and fungal genera in Pinus armandii roots and surrounding soils.ECM and ECM.S, ectomycorrhizae (Pinus armandii in association with Tuber indicum) and ectomycorrhizosphere soil. CK and CK.S, roots and soils from cultivated P. armandii without T. indicum partner. a, bacterial genera; b, fungal genera. The relative abundance of the sample at genus level increased with the increase of the color block value.
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pone.0175720.g004: Heat-map analysis of the 35 most abundant bacterial and fungal genera in Pinus armandii roots and surrounding soils.ECM and ECM.S, ectomycorrhizae (Pinus armandii in association with Tuber indicum) and ectomycorrhizosphere soil. CK and CK.S, roots and soils from cultivated P. armandii without T. indicum partner. a, bacterial genera; b, fungal genera. The relative abundance of the sample at genus level increased with the increase of the color block value.

Mentions: 190 of the 439 genera were identified in all samples (Fig 4a). Among these, the dominant genera in all samples were Streptomyces (average 3.45%), Pseudolabrys (2.08%), Opitutus (1.65%), Pseudomonas (1.55%), Ohtaekwangia (1.44%), Dactylosporangium (1.44%) and Mesorhizobium (1.29%). Mesorhizobium, Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium and Nordella were significantly more abundant in ECM.S than in CK.S (P < 0.05). Pseudomonas was more abundant in ECM compared with CK (P < 0.05).


Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree ( Pinus armandii )
Heat-map analysis of the 35 most abundant bacterial and fungal genera in Pinus armandii roots and surrounding soils.ECM and ECM.S, ectomycorrhizae (Pinus armandii in association with Tuber indicum) and ectomycorrhizosphere soil. CK and CK.S, roots and soils from cultivated P. armandii without T. indicum partner. a, bacterial genera; b, fungal genera. The relative abundance of the sample at genus level increased with the increase of the color block value.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391931&req=5

pone.0175720.g004: Heat-map analysis of the 35 most abundant bacterial and fungal genera in Pinus armandii roots and surrounding soils.ECM and ECM.S, ectomycorrhizae (Pinus armandii in association with Tuber indicum) and ectomycorrhizosphere soil. CK and CK.S, roots and soils from cultivated P. armandii without T. indicum partner. a, bacterial genera; b, fungal genera. The relative abundance of the sample at genus level increased with the increase of the color block value.
Mentions: 190 of the 439 genera were identified in all samples (Fig 4a). Among these, the dominant genera in all samples were Streptomyces (average 3.45%), Pseudolabrys (2.08%), Opitutus (1.65%), Pseudomonas (1.55%), Ohtaekwangia (1.44%), Dactylosporangium (1.44%) and Mesorhizobium (1.29%). Mesorhizobium, Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium and Nordella were significantly more abundant in ECM.S than in CK.S (P < 0.05). Pseudomonas was more abundant in ECM compared with CK (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum) on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91%) and ectomycorrhizae (97.64%) was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum.

No MeSH data available.