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Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir — triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

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ABSTRACT

Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater expected parasite mobility. The Neotropical region, which includes the Mexican south and southeast, and the Transvolcanic belt, had greatest potential active T. cruzi dispersal, as well as greatest edge density. This information could be directly applied for stratification of transmission risk and to design and analyze human-infected vector contact intervention efficacy.

No MeSH data available.


Hierarchical clustering of mammal host similarity among vector species.
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fig-7: Hierarchical clustering of mammal host similarity among vector species.

Mentions: Two principal clusters emerged from the complete geographic model network. These clusters differed according to number of species and geographic region. The first cluster was composed principally of phyllosoma (seven species) and dimidiata (two haplogroups) complex species and 171 mammals, while the second cluster contained principally protracta and rubida complexes (17 vector species and subspecies) and had 183 mammals. The more dominant species of this latter group are T. rubida, T. uhleri and T. woodii. Several mammal and vector species were intermediate between these two former groups and could not be assigned to either: T. dimidiata hg1, T. barberi, T. longipennis, T. mexicana, and T. pallidipennis (Fig. 6). Hierarchical similarity of vectors constructed from mammal hosts produced two main clusters. Most synanthropic vectors were grouped into one cluster, while most non-synanthropic species were separated into a second cluster (Fig. 7).


Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir — triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal
Hierarchical clustering of mammal host similarity among vector species.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391790&req=5

fig-7: Hierarchical clustering of mammal host similarity among vector species.
Mentions: Two principal clusters emerged from the complete geographic model network. These clusters differed according to number of species and geographic region. The first cluster was composed principally of phyllosoma (seven species) and dimidiata (two haplogroups) complex species and 171 mammals, while the second cluster contained principally protracta and rubida complexes (17 vector species and subspecies) and had 183 mammals. The more dominant species of this latter group are T. rubida, T. uhleri and T. woodii. Several mammal and vector species were intermediate between these two former groups and could not be assigned to either: T. dimidiata hg1, T. barberi, T. longipennis, T. mexicana, and T. pallidipennis (Fig. 6). Hierarchical similarity of vectors constructed from mammal hosts produced two main clusters. Most synanthropic vectors were grouped into one cluster, while most non-synanthropic species were separated into a second cluster (Fig. 7).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater expected parasite mobility. The Neotropical region, which includes the Mexican south and southeast, and the Transvolcanic belt, had greatest potential active T. cruzi dispersal, as well as greatest edge density. This information could be directly applied for stratification of transmission risk and to design and analyze human-infected vector contact intervention efficacy.

No MeSH data available.