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Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir — triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

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ABSTRACT

Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater expected parasite mobility. The Neotropical region, which includes the Mexican south and southeast, and the Transvolcanic belt, had greatest potential active T. cruzi dispersal, as well as greatest edge density. This information could be directly applied for stratification of transmission risk and to design and analyze human-infected vector contact intervention efficacy.

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Interaction network models for Mexican triatomines and terrestrial mammals.Node position is determined with a Kamada–Kawai algorithm graph. Orange circles are synanthropic triatomines and green circles are non-synanthropic triatomines. Each network depicts resultant links when varying the epsilon threshold; (A) epsilon ≥ 1.96, (B) epsilon ≥ 4, (C) epsilon ≥ 6, (D) epsilon ≥ 8, and (E) epsilon ≥ 10. Blue light are synanthropic mammals that are simultaneously infected and probable reservoirs of T. cruzi, yellow squares are synanthropic mammals that have not been reported infected with T. cruzi, orange squares are mammals that have been found infected with T. cruzi and are not synanthropic, and green squares are mammals that are neithers synanthropic nor have been reported with T. cruzi infection.
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fig-4: Interaction network models for Mexican triatomines and terrestrial mammals.Node position is determined with a Kamada–Kawai algorithm graph. Orange circles are synanthropic triatomines and green circles are non-synanthropic triatomines. Each network depicts resultant links when varying the epsilon threshold; (A) epsilon ≥ 1.96, (B) epsilon ≥ 4, (C) epsilon ≥ 6, (D) epsilon ≥ 8, and (E) epsilon ≥ 10. Blue light are synanthropic mammals that are simultaneously infected and probable reservoirs of T. cruzi, yellow squares are synanthropic mammals that have not been reported infected with T. cruzi, orange squares are mammals that have been found infected with T. cruzi and are not synanthropic, and green squares are mammals that are neithers synanthropic nor have been reported with T. cruzi infection.

Mentions: The interactions wiring patterns differed depending on the spatial position of the geographic centroid of vector and host ranges (Fig. 3). Edge density is higher in the Neotropical region, in central and southeast Mexico, as compared to the Nearctic region in the north. Synanthropic species (both triatomine and mammal) shape the Kamada–Kawai force-directed network structure, as indicated by their position in the center of graphs, while most non-synanthropic species are located on the periphery (Fig. 4). The structure of the complete array of mammals and vectors that can be considered relevant for the T. cruzi dispersal provided their geographic associations were not random, includes all significant links (ε ≥ 1.96) (Fig. 4). Mammals which are both synanthropic and T. cruzi-infected are the most central in the network. These synanthropic mammals remained in greater proportion (compared to non-synanthropic mammals) in networks with higher epsilon values (ε ≫ 2). In general, this last group of mammals (synanthropic and reported reservoirs), had proportionally more significant links than the group of registered reservoir species that are non synanthropic (OR =1.17, 95% CI [1.01–1.4]). At highest epsilon values (ε ≥ 8), the network connectivity was reduced to isolated clusters (Fig. 4), although these clusters had several nodes of synanthropic/T. cruzi reservoir species. For instance, Triatoma dimidiata Yucatan hg1 (node 365) had 21 links in the network with ε ≥ 10, and 9 (43%) of those links were synanthropic and T. cruzi reservoirs.


Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir — triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal
Interaction network models for Mexican triatomines and terrestrial mammals.Node position is determined with a Kamada–Kawai algorithm graph. Orange circles are synanthropic triatomines and green circles are non-synanthropic triatomines. Each network depicts resultant links when varying the epsilon threshold; (A) epsilon ≥ 1.96, (B) epsilon ≥ 4, (C) epsilon ≥ 6, (D) epsilon ≥ 8, and (E) epsilon ≥ 10. Blue light are synanthropic mammals that are simultaneously infected and probable reservoirs of T. cruzi, yellow squares are synanthropic mammals that have not been reported infected with T. cruzi, orange squares are mammals that have been found infected with T. cruzi and are not synanthropic, and green squares are mammals that are neithers synanthropic nor have been reported with T. cruzi infection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391790&req=5

fig-4: Interaction network models for Mexican triatomines and terrestrial mammals.Node position is determined with a Kamada–Kawai algorithm graph. Orange circles are synanthropic triatomines and green circles are non-synanthropic triatomines. Each network depicts resultant links when varying the epsilon threshold; (A) epsilon ≥ 1.96, (B) epsilon ≥ 4, (C) epsilon ≥ 6, (D) epsilon ≥ 8, and (E) epsilon ≥ 10. Blue light are synanthropic mammals that are simultaneously infected and probable reservoirs of T. cruzi, yellow squares are synanthropic mammals that have not been reported infected with T. cruzi, orange squares are mammals that have been found infected with T. cruzi and are not synanthropic, and green squares are mammals that are neithers synanthropic nor have been reported with T. cruzi infection.
Mentions: The interactions wiring patterns differed depending on the spatial position of the geographic centroid of vector and host ranges (Fig. 3). Edge density is higher in the Neotropical region, in central and southeast Mexico, as compared to the Nearctic region in the north. Synanthropic species (both triatomine and mammal) shape the Kamada–Kawai force-directed network structure, as indicated by their position in the center of graphs, while most non-synanthropic species are located on the periphery (Fig. 4). The structure of the complete array of mammals and vectors that can be considered relevant for the T. cruzi dispersal provided their geographic associations were not random, includes all significant links (ε ≥ 1.96) (Fig. 4). Mammals which are both synanthropic and T. cruzi-infected are the most central in the network. These synanthropic mammals remained in greater proportion (compared to non-synanthropic mammals) in networks with higher epsilon values (ε ≫ 2). In general, this last group of mammals (synanthropic and reported reservoirs), had proportionally more significant links than the group of registered reservoir species that are non synanthropic (OR =1.17, 95% CI [1.01–1.4]). At highest epsilon values (ε ≥ 8), the network connectivity was reduced to isolated clusters (Fig. 4), although these clusters had several nodes of synanthropic/T. cruzi reservoir species. For instance, Triatoma dimidiata Yucatan hg1 (node 365) had 21 links in the network with ε ≥ 10, and 9 (43%) of those links were synanthropic and T. cruzi reservoirs.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater expected parasite mobility. The Neotropical region, which includes the Mexican south and southeast, and the Transvolcanic belt, had greatest potential active T. cruzi dispersal, as well as greatest edge density. This information could be directly applied for stratification of transmission risk and to design and analyze human-infected vector contact intervention efficacy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus