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Loss of functional diversity and network modularity in introduced plant – fungal symbioses

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Native and alien trees associate with a wide range of beneficial fungi, but the few studies of these interactions tend to focus only on a few plant species or locations at a time. Using extensive databases collected by mycologists in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, we show that, in the latter region, fungi on alien trees are less functionally diverse than those associated with natives. In both New Zealand and the United Kingdom, however, the structure of the interaction network is simplified and "nested". This suggests that beneficial fungi hosted by alien trees may help facilitate further tree invasion.

No MeSH data available.


Interaction network of tree genera and ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand (left) and the UK (right), showing plant–plant modules by the colour of the vertex. Native plant genera are indicated by circles, alien plants by squares, labelled with the first three letters of the genus except in the UK network, where PiS = Pinus sylvestris, and PiX = alien Pinus spp. Each link represents a fungal species either linking plant species or forming a self–self link (loops), with link width proportional to the square root of the number of observations (scaled 1/10th in the UK network compared with NZ network). The colour of the links indicates fungal-fungal modules (not discussed).
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plw084-F5: Interaction network of tree genera and ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand (left) and the UK (right), showing plant–plant modules by the colour of the vertex. Native plant genera are indicated by circles, alien plants by squares, labelled with the first three letters of the genus except in the UK network, where PiS = Pinus sylvestris, and PiX = alien Pinus spp. Each link represents a fungal species either linking plant species or forming a self–self link (loops), with link width proportional to the square root of the number of observations (scaled 1/10th in the UK network compared with NZ network). The colour of the links indicates fungal-fungal modules (not discussed).

Mentions: The NZ unipartite projected plant network clustered into 4 modules (modularity  =  0.46). All alien trees in New Zealand, with the sole exception of Eucalyptus, were clustered into one module within the network (Fig. 5). The Myrtaceae, including Kunzea and Leptospermum (both native) and Eucalyptus (alien) all formed a second module. Native Lophozonia and Fuscospora were each placed into an individual module, while Nothofagus (alien, but in the same family) was placed into a module with all other alien trees.Figure 5


Loss of functional diversity and network modularity in introduced plant – fungal symbioses
Interaction network of tree genera and ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand (left) and the UK (right), showing plant–plant modules by the colour of the vertex. Native plant genera are indicated by circles, alien plants by squares, labelled with the first three letters of the genus except in the UK network, where PiS = Pinus sylvestris, and PiX = alien Pinus spp. Each link represents a fungal species either linking plant species or forming a self–self link (loops), with link width proportional to the square root of the number of observations (scaled 1/10th in the UK network compared with NZ network). The colour of the links indicates fungal-fungal modules (not discussed).
© Copyright Policy - cc-by
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5391694&req=5

plw084-F5: Interaction network of tree genera and ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand (left) and the UK (right), showing plant–plant modules by the colour of the vertex. Native plant genera are indicated by circles, alien plants by squares, labelled with the first three letters of the genus except in the UK network, where PiS = Pinus sylvestris, and PiX = alien Pinus spp. Each link represents a fungal species either linking plant species or forming a self–self link (loops), with link width proportional to the square root of the number of observations (scaled 1/10th in the UK network compared with NZ network). The colour of the links indicates fungal-fungal modules (not discussed).
Mentions: The NZ unipartite projected plant network clustered into 4 modules (modularity  =  0.46). All alien trees in New Zealand, with the sole exception of Eucalyptus, were clustered into one module within the network (Fig. 5). The Myrtaceae, including Kunzea and Leptospermum (both native) and Eucalyptus (alien) all formed a second module. Native Lophozonia and Fuscospora were each placed into an individual module, while Nothofagus (alien, but in the same family) was placed into a module with all other alien trees.Figure 5

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Native and alien trees associate with a wide range of beneficial fungi, but the few studies of these interactions tend to focus only on a few plant species or locations at a time. Using extensive databases collected by mycologists in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, we show that, in the latter region, fungi on alien trees are less functionally diverse than those associated with natives. In both New Zealand and the United Kingdom, however, the structure of the interaction network is simplified and "nested". This suggests that beneficial fungi hosted by alien trees may help facilitate further tree invasion.

No MeSH data available.