Limits...
Meeting the Aichi targets: Pushing for zero extinction conservation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians. We show that AZEs&s can be protected feasibly and cost-effectively, but action is urgent. We argue that the Alliance, whose initial main aim was to identify AZEs&s, must be followed up by a second-generation initiative that directs and co-ordinates AZE conservation activities on the ground. The prominent role of zoos, conservation NGOs, and governmental institutions provides a combination of all-encompassing knowhow that can, if properly steered, maximize the long-term survival of AZEs&s.

No MeSH data available.


Total annual costs for conserving AZEs&s for sites where estimates are available (Conde et al. 2015). A Median cost for amphibians (N = 502), birds (N = 165), mammals (N = 157), reptiles (N = 17) and sites (N = 533) stratified whether sites are inside or outside OECD countries except for reptiles because of low N. B Site costs, ordered according to the values, for OECD and non-OECD sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385670&req=5

Fig3: Total annual costs for conserving AZEs&s for sites where estimates are available (Conde et al. 2015). A Median cost for amphibians (N = 502), birds (N = 165), mammals (N = 157), reptiles (N = 17) and sites (N = 533) stratified whether sites are inside or outside OECD countries except for reptiles because of low N. B Site costs, ordered according to the values, for OECD and non-OECD sites

Mentions: Annual costs for down-listing a threatened species on the IUCN Red List by at least one threat category have been estimated as ranging between $3.41 and $4.76 billion with or without considering shared expenditure between species (McCarthy et al. 2012). Based on the estimates of land purchase, area and habitat management, foregone monetary returns and transaction costs over a 20-year period, in situ protection for AZE species would require annual expenditures of between ~6000 and ~30 000 000 US$ (Wilson et al. 2011; Conde et al. 2015). Annual costs are highly skewed with the respective majorities at the lower end of cost and the minorities at the higher end (Fig. 3). Median costs for down-listing a species would be 0.94, 0.98, 0.58 and 0.3 million US$ for amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, respectively. These values are within the range of median annual cost values (0.04–8.96 million US$, average 0.85 million US$) estimated by McCarthy et al.’s (2012) to down-list threatened bird species by one threat category.Fig. 3


Meeting the Aichi targets: Pushing for zero extinction conservation
Total annual costs for conserving AZEs&s for sites where estimates are available (Conde et al. 2015). A Median cost for amphibians (N = 502), birds (N = 165), mammals (N = 157), reptiles (N = 17) and sites (N = 533) stratified whether sites are inside or outside OECD countries except for reptiles because of low N. B Site costs, ordered according to the values, for OECD and non-OECD sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385670&req=5

Fig3: Total annual costs for conserving AZEs&s for sites where estimates are available (Conde et al. 2015). A Median cost for amphibians (N = 502), birds (N = 165), mammals (N = 157), reptiles (N = 17) and sites (N = 533) stratified whether sites are inside or outside OECD countries except for reptiles because of low N. B Site costs, ordered according to the values, for OECD and non-OECD sites
Mentions: Annual costs for down-listing a threatened species on the IUCN Red List by at least one threat category have been estimated as ranging between $3.41 and $4.76 billion with or without considering shared expenditure between species (McCarthy et al. 2012). Based on the estimates of land purchase, area and habitat management, foregone monetary returns and transaction costs over a 20-year period, in situ protection for AZE species would require annual expenditures of between ~6000 and ~30 000 000 US$ (Wilson et al. 2011; Conde et al. 2015). Annual costs are highly skewed with the respective majorities at the lower end of cost and the minorities at the higher end (Fig. 3). Median costs for down-listing a species would be 0.94, 0.98, 0.58 and 0.3 million US$ for amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, respectively. These values are within the range of median annual cost values (0.04–8.96 million US$, average 0.85 million US$) estimated by McCarthy et al.’s (2012) to down-list threatened bird species by one threat category.Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians. We show that AZEs&s can be protected feasibly and cost-effectively, but action is urgent. We argue that the Alliance, whose initial main aim was to identify AZEs&s, must be followed up by a second-generation initiative that directs and co-ordinates AZE conservation activities on the ground. The prominent role of zoos, conservation NGOs, and governmental institutions provides a combination of all-encompassing knowhow that can, if properly steered, maximize the long-term survival of AZEs&s.

No MeSH data available.