Limits...
International marine environmental governance: A review

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate. Over time, several initiatives have been taken to improve cooperation, coordination and integration to achieve greater coherence of policies and strategies between different organizations dealing with marine and maritime management, within and outside the United Nation system. However, the success has been limited. The weaknesses of international organizations depend fundamentally on problems at the national level. The international organizations are no stronger than their Contracting Parties allow them to be.

No MeSH data available.


Graphical representation of UNCLOS and the boundaries at the Sea. Source: UNCLOS. The Sea is jurisdictionally divided into Inner Waters (inside the baseline), the Territorial Sea (12 nautical miles (nM) from the baseline), a Contiguous zone (a possible additional zone 24 nM from the baseline, claimed by some countries), the Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ, (200 nM from the baseline) and the High Seas (beyond the EEZ). The Area includes the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. It starts at the 200 nM or at the end of the Continental Shelf, where this extends beyond the 200 nM boundary (DSH 1983:1). Maritime boundaries delimiting various maritime zones in, for example semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea, are subject to special rules under UNCLOS
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385665&req=5

Fig1: Graphical representation of UNCLOS and the boundaries at the Sea. Source: UNCLOS. The Sea is jurisdictionally divided into Inner Waters (inside the baseline), the Territorial Sea (12 nautical miles (nM) from the baseline), a Contiguous zone (a possible additional zone 24 nM from the baseline, claimed by some countries), the Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ, (200 nM from the baseline) and the High Seas (beyond the EEZ). The Area includes the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. It starts at the 200 nM or at the end of the Continental Shelf, where this extends beyond the 200 nM boundary (DSH 1983:1). Maritime boundaries delimiting various maritime zones in, for example semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea, are subject to special rules under UNCLOS

Mentions: The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (Fig. 1), adopted in 1982 and entered into force in 1994, provides the international and national legal marine framework needed in coastal countries for issues regarding their sovereignty, rights and responsibilities relevant to the management of the marine environment and its resources (Jacobsson 2009). Furthermore, UNCLOS includes a host of global agreements on specific issues, such as those related to management of fisheries resources, safety of maritime traffic, pollution control, protection and conservation of biodiversity, response to expected climate change, and to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas (Frank 2007).Fig. 1


International marine environmental governance: A review
Graphical representation of UNCLOS and the boundaries at the Sea. Source: UNCLOS. The Sea is jurisdictionally divided into Inner Waters (inside the baseline), the Territorial Sea (12 nautical miles (nM) from the baseline), a Contiguous zone (a possible additional zone 24 nM from the baseline, claimed by some countries), the Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ, (200 nM from the baseline) and the High Seas (beyond the EEZ). The Area includes the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. It starts at the 200 nM or at the end of the Continental Shelf, where this extends beyond the 200 nM boundary (DSH 1983:1). Maritime boundaries delimiting various maritime zones in, for example semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea, are subject to special rules under UNCLOS
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385665&req=5

Fig1: Graphical representation of UNCLOS and the boundaries at the Sea. Source: UNCLOS. The Sea is jurisdictionally divided into Inner Waters (inside the baseline), the Territorial Sea (12 nautical miles (nM) from the baseline), a Contiguous zone (a possible additional zone 24 nM from the baseline, claimed by some countries), the Exclusive Economic Zone, EEZ, (200 nM from the baseline) and the High Seas (beyond the EEZ). The Area includes the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. It starts at the 200 nM or at the end of the Continental Shelf, where this extends beyond the 200 nM boundary (DSH 1983:1). Maritime boundaries delimiting various maritime zones in, for example semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea, are subject to special rules under UNCLOS
Mentions: The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (Fig. 1), adopted in 1982 and entered into force in 1994, provides the international and national legal marine framework needed in coastal countries for issues regarding their sovereignty, rights and responsibilities relevant to the management of the marine environment and its resources (Jacobsson 2009). Furthermore, UNCLOS includes a host of global agreements on specific issues, such as those related to management of fisheries resources, safety of maritime traffic, pollution control, protection and conservation of biodiversity, response to expected climate change, and to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas (Frank 2007).Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate. Over time, several initiatives have been taken to improve cooperation, coordination and integration to achieve greater coherence of policies and strategies between different organizations dealing with marine and maritime management, within and outside the United Nation system. However, the success has been limited. The weaknesses of international organizations depend fundamentally on problems at the national level. The international organizations are no stronger than their Contracting Parties allow them to be.

No MeSH data available.