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Demonstration of nanoimprinted hyperlens array for high-throughput sub-diffraction imaging

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Overcoming the resolution limit of conventional optics is regarded as the most important issue in optical imaging science and technology. Although hyperlenses, super-resolution imaging devices based on highly anisotropic dispersion relations that allow the access of high-wavevector components, have recently achieved far-field sub-diffraction imaging in real-time, the previously demonstrated devices have suffered from the extreme difficulties of both the fabrication process and the non-artificial objects placement. This results in restrictions on the practical applications of the hyperlens devices. While implementing large-scale hyperlens arrays in conventional microscopy is desirable to solve such issues, it has not been feasible to fabricate such large-scale hyperlens array with the previously used nanofabrication methods. Here, we suggest a scalable and reliable fabrication process of a large-scale hyperlens device based on direct pattern transfer techniques. We fabricate a 5 cm × 5 cm size hyperlenses array and experimentally demonstrate that it can resolve sub-diffraction features down to 160 nm under 410 nm wavelength visible light. The array-based hyperlens device will provide a simple solution for much more practical far-field and real-time super-resolution imaging which can be widely used in optics, biology, medical science, nanotechnology and other closely related interdisciplinary fields.

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Imaging result with the hyperlens integrated microscope setup.(a) SEM image of the sub-diffraction scale objects. 100 nm diameter holes are separated with distance of 170 nm and the distances between each hole and a bar are 160 nm and 180 nm, respectively. (b) Optics setup. The hyperlens is illuminated by the selected wavelength of light using bandpass filter and transmitted light is captured by objective lens and CCD camera. (c) Far-field optical image after hyperlens. The small object below diffraction limit is clearly resolved by the hyperlens. (d) Cross-sectional intensity profile showing 476 nm distance corresponding to 2.97x magnification factor.
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f7: Imaging result with the hyperlens integrated microscope setup.(a) SEM image of the sub-diffraction scale objects. 100 nm diameter holes are separated with distance of 170 nm and the distances between each hole and a bar are 160 nm and 180 nm, respectively. (b) Optics setup. The hyperlens is illuminated by the selected wavelength of light using bandpass filter and transmitted light is captured by objective lens and CCD camera. (c) Far-field optical image after hyperlens. The small object below diffraction limit is clearly resolved by the hyperlens. (d) Cross-sectional intensity profile showing 476 nm distance corresponding to 2.97x magnification factor.

Mentions: Finally, to verify the performance of the hyperlens device, sub-diffractional objects of “smiling face” consisting with two holes and one bar are patterned inside of the hyperlenses. The SEM image of the patterned smiling face is shown in Fig. 7(a). The spacing between the two holes is 170 nm and the holes and bar are separated by 160 nm and 180 nm distance, respectively. The smiling face is imaged by the home-built optical setup shown in Fig. 7(b). An inverted microscope (Axiovert 200, Zeiss) is used as a basic imaging setup body. A white-light mercury lamp (HBO 100, Zeiss) is illuminated through the bandpass filter to select the 410 nm wavelength light. The incident light has no polarization and passes through the hyperlens array sample. The signal that passed through the hyperlens is captured by a 100X oil-immersion objective lens (NA 1.3) and then a sCMOS detector (Zyla 4.2, Andor). The magnified image is shown in Fig. 7(c) and the cross-section intensity profile along the dashed line is plotted in Fig. 7(d). The intensity profile shows a distance of 476 nm in the far-field, corresponding to magnification of 2.97. The result proves the sub-wavelength features magnified in two-dimensions and propagated through the hyperlens are captured by the objective lens and sCMOS camera under the unpolarized illumination. The detailed information about polarization is explained in the Supplementary Information (Figure S3).


Demonstration of nanoimprinted hyperlens array for high-throughput sub-diffraction imaging
Imaging result with the hyperlens integrated microscope setup.(a) SEM image of the sub-diffraction scale objects. 100 nm diameter holes are separated with distance of 170 nm and the distances between each hole and a bar are 160 nm and 180 nm, respectively. (b) Optics setup. The hyperlens is illuminated by the selected wavelength of light using bandpass filter and transmitted light is captured by objective lens and CCD camera. (c) Far-field optical image after hyperlens. The small object below diffraction limit is clearly resolved by the hyperlens. (d) Cross-sectional intensity profile showing 476 nm distance corresponding to 2.97x magnification factor.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385565&req=5

f7: Imaging result with the hyperlens integrated microscope setup.(a) SEM image of the sub-diffraction scale objects. 100 nm diameter holes are separated with distance of 170 nm and the distances between each hole and a bar are 160 nm and 180 nm, respectively. (b) Optics setup. The hyperlens is illuminated by the selected wavelength of light using bandpass filter and transmitted light is captured by objective lens and CCD camera. (c) Far-field optical image after hyperlens. The small object below diffraction limit is clearly resolved by the hyperlens. (d) Cross-sectional intensity profile showing 476 nm distance corresponding to 2.97x magnification factor.
Mentions: Finally, to verify the performance of the hyperlens device, sub-diffractional objects of “smiling face” consisting with two holes and one bar are patterned inside of the hyperlenses. The SEM image of the patterned smiling face is shown in Fig. 7(a). The spacing between the two holes is 170 nm and the holes and bar are separated by 160 nm and 180 nm distance, respectively. The smiling face is imaged by the home-built optical setup shown in Fig. 7(b). An inverted microscope (Axiovert 200, Zeiss) is used as a basic imaging setup body. A white-light mercury lamp (HBO 100, Zeiss) is illuminated through the bandpass filter to select the 410 nm wavelength light. The incident light has no polarization and passes through the hyperlens array sample. The signal that passed through the hyperlens is captured by a 100X oil-immersion objective lens (NA 1.3) and then a sCMOS detector (Zyla 4.2, Andor). The magnified image is shown in Fig. 7(c) and the cross-section intensity profile along the dashed line is plotted in Fig. 7(d). The intensity profile shows a distance of 476 nm in the far-field, corresponding to magnification of 2.97. The result proves the sub-wavelength features magnified in two-dimensions and propagated through the hyperlens are captured by the objective lens and sCMOS camera under the unpolarized illumination. The detailed information about polarization is explained in the Supplementary Information (Figure S3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Overcoming the resolution limit of conventional optics is regarded as the most important issue in optical imaging science and technology. Although hyperlenses, super-resolution imaging devices based on highly anisotropic dispersion relations that allow the access of high-wavevector components, have recently achieved far-field sub-diffraction imaging in real-time, the previously demonstrated devices have suffered from the extreme difficulties of both the fabrication process and the non-artificial objects placement. This results in restrictions on the practical applications of the hyperlens devices. While implementing large-scale hyperlens arrays in conventional microscopy is desirable to solve such issues, it has not been feasible to fabricate such large-scale hyperlens array with the previously used nanofabrication methods. Here, we suggest a scalable and reliable fabrication process of a large-scale hyperlens device based on direct pattern transfer techniques. We fabricate a 5 cm × 5 cm size hyperlenses array and experimentally demonstrate that it can resolve sub-diffraction features down to 160 nm under 410 nm wavelength visible light. The array-based hyperlens device will provide a simple solution for much more practical far-field and real-time super-resolution imaging which can be widely used in optics, biology, medical science, nanotechnology and other closely related interdisciplinary fields.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus