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Roles of Multiple Globus Pallidus Territories of Monkeys and Humans in Motivation, Cognition and Action: An Anatomical, Physiological and Pathophysiological Review

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ABSTRACT

The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control. This organization suggests that distinct subdivisions within the GP play specific roles. Neurophysiological studies examining GP neurons in monkeys during behavior revealed that the types of information coding performed within these subdivisions differ greatly. The anteroventral GP is characterized by activities related to motivation, such as reward seeking and aversive avoidance; the anterodorsal GP is characterized by activity that reflects cognition, such as goal decision and action selection; and the posterior GP is characterized by activity associated with action preparation and execution. Pathophysiological studies have shown that GABA-related substances or GP lesions result in abnormal activity in the GP, which causes site-specific behavioral and motor symptoms. The present review article discusses the anatomical organization, physiology and pathophysiology of the three major GP territories in nonhuman primates and humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Movement-related activity exhibiting directional preferences in the globus pallidus (GP). Movement-related population activity for the preferred direction (blue) and the anti-preferred direction (red: mean ± SEM) showing excitation and inhibition, respectively. The yellow zone represents the average time of the movement period and the histogram is aligned with touch the screen (“Touch”). Data from Saga et al. (2013) used with permission from the Society for Neuroscience.
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Figure 4: Movement-related activity exhibiting directional preferences in the globus pallidus (GP). Movement-related population activity for the preferred direction (blue) and the anti-preferred direction (red: mean ± SEM) showing excitation and inhibition, respectively. The yellow zone represents the average time of the movement period and the histogram is aligned with touch the screen (“Touch”). Data from Saga et al. (2013) used with permission from the Society for Neuroscience.

Mentions: Given that three different territories exist within the GP, it can be expected that each territory plays a specific role. Electrophysiological studies conducted during the performance of a variety of behaviors have elucidated the functions of the GP, as well as the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. DeLong (1971) was the first to record neuronal activity in the GP of behaving monkeys and reported that GP neurons show high spontaneous activity, are characterized by either tonic or burst activity, and exhibit excitatory and inhibitory responses in relation to multiple behavioral events. A subset of GP neurons primarily located in the middle to ventral portion of the posterior GP shows movement-related activity with direction selectivity (Figure 4); this region corresponds to the motor territory that has been anatomically defined (Figure 5A). Subsequent studies identified GP neurons that exhibit movement-related activity influenced by behavioral contexts, such as a movement sequence (Mushiake and Strick, 1995) or the absence or presence of visual guidance (Figure 5C; Turner and Anderson, 1997, 2005). Dysfunction within the GP motor territory induced by microinjections of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist) results in abnormal posture (Horak and Anderson, 1984; Mink and Thach, 1991; Desmurget and Turner, 2008), impairments in the execution of movements (such as reaching velocity and acceleration), and hypometria (Turner and Desmurget, 2010). These results further substantiate the notion that the anatomically defined motor territory plays a crucial role in the execution of movement.


Roles of Multiple Globus Pallidus Territories of Monkeys and Humans in Motivation, Cognition and Action: An Anatomical, Physiological and Pathophysiological Review
Movement-related activity exhibiting directional preferences in the globus pallidus (GP). Movement-related population activity for the preferred direction (blue) and the anti-preferred direction (red: mean ± SEM) showing excitation and inhibition, respectively. The yellow zone represents the average time of the movement period and the histogram is aligned with touch the screen (“Touch”). Data from Saga et al. (2013) used with permission from the Society for Neuroscience.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5385466&req=5

Figure 4: Movement-related activity exhibiting directional preferences in the globus pallidus (GP). Movement-related population activity for the preferred direction (blue) and the anti-preferred direction (red: mean ± SEM) showing excitation and inhibition, respectively. The yellow zone represents the average time of the movement period and the histogram is aligned with touch the screen (“Touch”). Data from Saga et al. (2013) used with permission from the Society for Neuroscience.
Mentions: Given that three different territories exist within the GP, it can be expected that each territory plays a specific role. Electrophysiological studies conducted during the performance of a variety of behaviors have elucidated the functions of the GP, as well as the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. DeLong (1971) was the first to record neuronal activity in the GP of behaving monkeys and reported that GP neurons show high spontaneous activity, are characterized by either tonic or burst activity, and exhibit excitatory and inhibitory responses in relation to multiple behavioral events. A subset of GP neurons primarily located in the middle to ventral portion of the posterior GP shows movement-related activity with direction selectivity (Figure 4); this region corresponds to the motor territory that has been anatomically defined (Figure 5A). Subsequent studies identified GP neurons that exhibit movement-related activity influenced by behavioral contexts, such as a movement sequence (Mushiake and Strick, 1995) or the absence or presence of visual guidance (Figure 5C; Turner and Anderson, 1997, 2005). Dysfunction within the GP motor territory induced by microinjections of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist) results in abnormal posture (Horak and Anderson, 1984; Mink and Thach, 1991; Desmurget and Turner, 2008), impairments in the execution of movements (such as reaching velocity and acceleration), and hypometria (Turner and Desmurget, 2010). These results further substantiate the notion that the anatomically defined motor territory plays a crucial role in the execution of movement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control. This organization suggests that distinct subdivisions within the GP play specific roles. Neurophysiological studies examining GP neurons in monkeys during behavior revealed that the types of information coding performed within these subdivisions differ greatly. The anteroventral GP is characterized by activities related to motivation, such as reward seeking and aversive avoidance; the anterodorsal GP is characterized by activity that reflects cognition, such as goal decision and action selection; and the posterior GP is characterized by activity associated with action preparation and execution. Pathophysiological studies have shown that GABA-related substances or GP lesions result in abnormal activity in the GP, which causes site-specific behavioral and motor symptoms. The present review article discusses the anatomical organization, physiology and pathophysiology of the three major GP territories in nonhuman primates and humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus