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Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae)

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ABSTRACT

Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae), is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of loggerhead turtles, such new arrivals in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary are of concern. Growing evidence indicates that artificial reefs can act as permanent way-stations for arriving non-natives, providing nurseries within which populations may grow in an environment with reduced competition compared to native habitats. Consequently, artificial reefs can act as sentinels for the appearance of new species. Ongoing monitoring of the developing molluscan fauna on the artificial reefs of the Florida Keys is necessary to recognize new invasions and identify potential eradication targets, thereby assuring the health of the nearby natural barrier reef.

No MeSH data available.


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External morphology and living coloration of Thylacodes vandyensis n. sp.(A) (paratype 1) Orange morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; oblique view into shell aperture with animal slightly withdrawn but keeping the mantle extended; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (B) (paratype 2) Orange morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge; right lateral view of extended head-foot; note upper set of cephalic tentacles (with one black eye visible) and lower set of pedal tentacles; elongated-ovoid fecal pallets (arrows) near the extremely thin wall of the feeding tube; on Spondylus americanus densely covered by a red encrusting sponge (Mycale sp.) (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (C) (paratype 3) Grey morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; animal slightly protruding from feeding tube, showing entry to mantle cavity; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 6.5 mm). (D) Grey morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge (me); whole male animal removed from shell; note near-black head-foot (hf), orange-lined extent of mantle cavity, white columellar muscle (cm), olive-black digestive gland (dg), and tan gonad (go) (FMNH 344614; from about 29 m depth, September 2016; same animal as in Fig. 5B; largest diameter, at mantle edge, 6.0 mm).
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fig-4: External morphology and living coloration of Thylacodes vandyensis n. sp.(A) (paratype 1) Orange morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; oblique view into shell aperture with animal slightly withdrawn but keeping the mantle extended; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (B) (paratype 2) Orange morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge; right lateral view of extended head-foot; note upper set of cephalic tentacles (with one black eye visible) and lower set of pedal tentacles; elongated-ovoid fecal pallets (arrows) near the extremely thin wall of the feeding tube; on Spondylus americanus densely covered by a red encrusting sponge (Mycale sp.) (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (C) (paratype 3) Grey morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; animal slightly protruding from feeding tube, showing entry to mantle cavity; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 6.5 mm). (D) Grey morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge (me); whole male animal removed from shell; note near-black head-foot (hf), orange-lined extent of mantle cavity, white columellar muscle (cm), olive-black digestive gland (dg), and tan gonad (go) (FMNH 344614; from about 29 m depth, September 2016; same animal as in Fig. 5B; largest diameter, at mantle edge, 6.0 mm).

Mentions: In the following, we describe an additional gastropod, a new species of the caenogastropod family Vermetidae, from the artificial reefs. To date it is known only from the wreck of the Vandenberg:


Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae)
External morphology and living coloration of Thylacodes vandyensis n. sp.(A) (paratype 1) Orange morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; oblique view into shell aperture with animal slightly withdrawn but keeping the mantle extended; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (B) (paratype 2) Orange morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge; right lateral view of extended head-foot; note upper set of cephalic tentacles (with one black eye visible) and lower set of pedal tentacles; elongated-ovoid fecal pallets (arrows) near the extremely thin wall of the feeding tube; on Spondylus americanus densely covered by a red encrusting sponge (Mycale sp.) (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (C) (paratype 3) Grey morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; animal slightly protruding from feeding tube, showing entry to mantle cavity; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 6.5 mm). (D) Grey morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge (me); whole male animal removed from shell; note near-black head-foot (hf), orange-lined extent of mantle cavity, white columellar muscle (cm), olive-black digestive gland (dg), and tan gonad (go) (FMNH 344614; from about 29 m depth, September 2016; same animal as in Fig. 5B; largest diameter, at mantle edge, 6.0 mm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384567&req=5

fig-4: External morphology and living coloration of Thylacodes vandyensis n. sp.(A) (paratype 1) Orange morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; oblique view into shell aperture with animal slightly withdrawn but keeping the mantle extended; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (B) (paratype 2) Orange morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge; right lateral view of extended head-foot; note upper set of cephalic tentacles (with one black eye visible) and lower set of pedal tentacles; elongated-ovoid fecal pallets (arrows) near the extremely thin wall of the feeding tube; on Spondylus americanus densely covered by a red encrusting sponge (Mycale sp.) (diameter of shell aperture, 4.5 mm). (C) (paratype 3) Grey morph, with yellow pattern on mantle edge; animal slightly protruding from feeding tube, showing entry to mantle cavity; on Hyotissa mcgintyi (diameter of shell aperture, 6.5 mm). (D) Grey morph, without yellow pattern on mantle edge (me); whole male animal removed from shell; note near-black head-foot (hf), orange-lined extent of mantle cavity, white columellar muscle (cm), olive-black digestive gland (dg), and tan gonad (go) (FMNH 344614; from about 29 m depth, September 2016; same animal as in Fig. 5B; largest diameter, at mantle edge, 6.0 mm).
Mentions: In the following, we describe an additional gastropod, a new species of the caenogastropod family Vermetidae, from the artificial reefs. To date it is known only from the wreck of the Vandenberg:

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae), is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of loggerhead turtles, such new arrivals in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary are of concern. Growing evidence indicates that artificial reefs can act as permanent way-stations for arriving non-natives, providing nurseries within which populations may grow in an environment with reduced competition compared to native habitats. Consequently, artificial reefs can act as sentinels for the appearance of new species. Ongoing monitoring of the developing molluscan fauna on the artificial reefs of the Florida Keys is necessary to recognize new invasions and identify potential eradication targets, thereby assuring the health of the nearby natural barrier reef.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus