Limits...
The effects of invasive pests and pathogens on strategies for forest diversification

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Novel bioeconomic model assesses effect of tree disease on tree species mixtures.

Risk and damage of disease alters the optimal planting proportion of two species.

Diversifying reduces loss from disease even if resistant species benefit is small.

Optimal planting proportion sensitive to disease characteristics and economic loss.

Optimal planting proportion sensitive to disease characteristics and economic loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Area occupied by infected trees over time and the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected. In (a) the area of infected trees, IA(t, 0) (hectares), from Eq. (16) is shown over time, t (years), for a monoculture of species A (δ = 0 and LA(0) = L). In (b) the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected, t0.95 (years; with θ = 0.95 in Eq. (17)), is shown against the proportion of species A, 1 − δ, planted in the plot. The horizontal line indicates the rotation length, T = 40 years. In both panels the secondary infection rate is β = 0.1, and the primary infection rate is ϵ = 0.13 (solid), ϵ = 0.0175 (dashed) and ϵ = 0.00033 (dotted). Parameter values are given in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384431&req=5

fig0005: Area occupied by infected trees over time and the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected. In (a) the area of infected trees, IA(t, 0) (hectares), from Eq. (16) is shown over time, t (years), for a monoculture of species A (δ = 0 and LA(0) = L). In (b) the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected, t0.95 (years; with θ = 0.95 in Eq. (17)), is shown against the proportion of species A, 1 − δ, planted in the plot. The horizontal line indicates the rotation length, T = 40 years. In both panels the secondary infection rate is β = 0.1, and the primary infection rate is ϵ = 0.13 (solid), ϵ = 0.0175 (dashed) and ϵ = 0.00033 (dotted). Parameter values are given in Table 1.

Mentions: When a monoculture of species A is planted (δ = 0 giving LA(0) = L), Eq. (15) simplifies to(16)IA(t,0)=ϵe(L+ϵ)βt−1(ϵ/L)e(L+ϵ)βt+1.Fig. 1(a) shows the area of infected trees over time for Eq. (16), for the three primary infection rates, ϵ, used in this study. If a monoculture of species A is planted, then as t → ∞, the infected area tends to the total area, IA(t, 0) → L. This can be shown by standard steady-state analysis for epidemic models, e.g. substituting t =∞ into Eq. (16).


The effects of invasive pests and pathogens on strategies for forest diversification
Area occupied by infected trees over time and the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected. In (a) the area of infected trees, IA(t, 0) (hectares), from Eq. (16) is shown over time, t (years), for a monoculture of species A (δ = 0 and LA(0) = L). In (b) the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected, t0.95 (years; with θ = 0.95 in Eq. (17)), is shown against the proportion of species A, 1 − δ, planted in the plot. The horizontal line indicates the rotation length, T = 40 years. In both panels the secondary infection rate is β = 0.1, and the primary infection rate is ϵ = 0.13 (solid), ϵ = 0.0175 (dashed) and ϵ = 0.00033 (dotted). Parameter values are given in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384431&req=5

fig0005: Area occupied by infected trees over time and the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected. In (a) the area of infected trees, IA(t, 0) (hectares), from Eq. (16) is shown over time, t (years), for a monoculture of species A (δ = 0 and LA(0) = L). In (b) the time taken for 95% of species A to become infected, t0.95 (years; with θ = 0.95 in Eq. (17)), is shown against the proportion of species A, 1 − δ, planted in the plot. The horizontal line indicates the rotation length, T = 40 years. In both panels the secondary infection rate is β = 0.1, and the primary infection rate is ϵ = 0.13 (solid), ϵ = 0.0175 (dashed) and ϵ = 0.00033 (dotted). Parameter values are given in Table 1.
Mentions: When a monoculture of species A is planted (δ = 0 giving LA(0) = L), Eq. (15) simplifies to(16)IA(t,0)=ϵe(L+ϵ)βt−1(ϵ/L)e(L+ϵ)βt+1.Fig. 1(a) shows the area of infected trees over time for Eq. (16), for the three primary infection rates, ϵ, used in this study. If a monoculture of species A is planted, then as t → ∞, the infected area tends to the total area, IA(t, 0) → L. This can be shown by standard steady-state analysis for epidemic models, e.g. substituting t =∞ into Eq. (16).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Novel bioeconomic model assesses effect of tree disease on tree species mixtures.

Risk and damage of disease alters the optimal planting proportion of two species.

Diversifying reduces loss from disease even if resistant species benefit is small.

Optimal planting proportion sensitive to disease characteristics and economic loss.

Optimal planting proportion sensitive to disease characteristics and economic loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus