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Tert-buthylhydroquinone pre-conditioning exerts dual effects in old female rats exposed to 3-nitropropionic acid

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The brain is a very susceptible organ to structural and functional alterations caused by oxidative stress and its vulnerability increases with age. Understanding the antioxidant response activated by the transcription factor Nrf2 has become very important in the aging field in order to activate cellular protection. However, the role of Nrf2 inducers during old age has not been completely understood. Our aim was to activate the Nrf2 pathway by pre-treating old rats with a widely used Nrf2-inducer, tert-buthylhydroquinone (tBHQ), prior to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) insult, in order to evaluate its effects at a behavioral, morphological and biochemical levels. 3-NP has been used to reproduce the biochemical and pathophysiological characteristics of Huntington's disease due to an oxidative effect. Our results suggest that tBHQ confers an important protective effect against 3-NP toxicity; nevertheless, Nrf2 seems not to be the main protective pathway associated to neuroprotection. Hormetic responses include the activation of more than one transcription factor. Nrf2 and NFκB are known to simultaneously initiate different cellular responses against stress by triggering parallel mechanisms, therefore NFκB nuclear accumulation was also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in adult and old animals striatum. GFAP was used as a reactive astrogliosis marker. Morphological details of adult (A) and old (B) rats after the different treatments are shown. Samples were processed according to the Section 2. Morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy (40×); the GFAP immunopositive astrocytes are shown with arrows. (C). Quantitative analysis of GFAP presence in adult and old striatum. The results were obtained from three independent experiments. All data are represented as mean±SD (n=3 in each group). ap<0.001, bp<0.01 vs Ct, cp<0.001 vs 3-NP. The asterisks (*) indicate p<0.05 vs Adult Ct.
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f0020: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in adult and old animals striatum. GFAP was used as a reactive astrogliosis marker. Morphological details of adult (A) and old (B) rats after the different treatments are shown. Samples were processed according to the Section 2. Morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy (40×); the GFAP immunopositive astrocytes are shown with arrows. (C). Quantitative analysis of GFAP presence in adult and old striatum. The results were obtained from three independent experiments. All data are represented as mean±SD (n=3 in each group). ap<0.001, bp<0.01 vs Ct, cp<0.001 vs 3-NP. The asterisks (*) indicate p<0.05 vs Adult Ct.

Mentions: Reactive astrogliosis is known to occur in response to different stressors and increases during the normal aging process, as shown in Fig. 4, where levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased 4-fold in control old animals (Fig. 4B) when compared to control adults (Fig. 4A) (p<0.01). Interestingly, senile animals were more susceptible than adults to 3-NP toxicity, which induced about 40% GFAP immunopositive cells (p<0.001). Paradoxically, tBHQ considerably increased astrogliosis in adult rats (p<0.001) compared to aged rats, which decreased gliosis (Fig. 4A and B). PreT also decreased significantly the astrogliosis in old animals (p<0.001) (Fig. 4C), suggesting that a survival pathway might have an important participation in mediating this neuroprotection.


Tert-buthylhydroquinone pre-conditioning exerts dual effects in old female rats exposed to 3-nitropropionic acid
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in adult and old animals striatum. GFAP was used as a reactive astrogliosis marker. Morphological details of adult (A) and old (B) rats after the different treatments are shown. Samples were processed according to the Section 2. Morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy (40×); the GFAP immunopositive astrocytes are shown with arrows. (C). Quantitative analysis of GFAP presence in adult and old striatum. The results were obtained from three independent experiments. All data are represented as mean±SD (n=3 in each group). ap<0.001, bp<0.01 vs Ct, cp<0.001 vs 3-NP. The asterisks (*) indicate p<0.05 vs Adult Ct.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384325&req=5

f0020: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in adult and old animals striatum. GFAP was used as a reactive astrogliosis marker. Morphological details of adult (A) and old (B) rats after the different treatments are shown. Samples were processed according to the Section 2. Morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy (40×); the GFAP immunopositive astrocytes are shown with arrows. (C). Quantitative analysis of GFAP presence in adult and old striatum. The results were obtained from three independent experiments. All data are represented as mean±SD (n=3 in each group). ap<0.001, bp<0.01 vs Ct, cp<0.001 vs 3-NP. The asterisks (*) indicate p<0.05 vs Adult Ct.
Mentions: Reactive astrogliosis is known to occur in response to different stressors and increases during the normal aging process, as shown in Fig. 4, where levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased 4-fold in control old animals (Fig. 4B) when compared to control adults (Fig. 4A) (p<0.01). Interestingly, senile animals were more susceptible than adults to 3-NP toxicity, which induced about 40% GFAP immunopositive cells (p<0.001). Paradoxically, tBHQ considerably increased astrogliosis in adult rats (p<0.001) compared to aged rats, which decreased gliosis (Fig. 4A and B). PreT also decreased significantly the astrogliosis in old animals (p<0.001) (Fig. 4C), suggesting that a survival pathway might have an important participation in mediating this neuroprotection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The brain is a very susceptible organ to structural and functional alterations caused by oxidative stress and its vulnerability increases with age. Understanding the antioxidant response activated by the transcription factor Nrf2 has become very important in the aging field in order to activate cellular protection. However, the role of Nrf2 inducers during old age has not been completely understood. Our aim was to activate the Nrf2 pathway by pre-treating old rats with a widely used Nrf2-inducer, tert-buthylhydroquinone (tBHQ), prior to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) insult, in order to evaluate its effects at a behavioral, morphological and biochemical levels. 3-NP has been used to reproduce the biochemical and pathophysiological characteristics of Huntington's disease due to an oxidative effect. Our results suggest that tBHQ confers an important protective effect against 3-NP toxicity; nevertheless, Nrf2 seems not to be the main protective pathway associated to neuroprotection. Hormetic responses include the activation of more than one transcription factor. Nrf2 and NF&kappa;B are known to simultaneously initiate different cellular responses against stress by triggering parallel mechanisms, therefore NF&kappa;B nuclear accumulation was also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus