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Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

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ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.


Bayesian Skyline Plots of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.The solid line is the median estimate, while dashed lines show the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) limits. Means (filled circles) and HPD intervals (pipes) for coalescence times are provided in the figure with corresponding colors. Ne: effective population size.
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f3: Bayesian Skyline Plots of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.The solid line is the median estimate, while dashed lines show the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) limits. Means (filled circles) and HPD intervals (pipes) for coalescence times are provided in the figure with corresponding colors. Ne: effective population size.

Mentions: The hg U7 Bayesian skyline analysis (Fig. 3) shows a clear signal for an overall demographic expansion after the LGM. U7a drives the early stages of this demographic expansion, whereas the signal for U7b (the predominantly European subclade of hg U7) occurs much later, ~8–5 kya (Table 1 and Fig. 3). The subclades of U7a that are common in the Near East and South Asia (U7a1, U7a2, U7a3, and U7a10) are characterized by coalescence dates and a growth phase prior to the Holocene (Supplementary Figure S1 and Supplementary Table S4). Among those, U7a3 is both the oldest (~19 kya) and most frequent throughout these two areas, whilst U7a1, U7a2 and U7a10 are older than 12 kya. Clades U7a2, U7a3 and U7a10 have individual components, specific to the Near East and South Asia, suggesting that U7a was already differentiated in both regions by the end of the Pleistocene.


Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7
Bayesian Skyline Plots of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.The solid line is the median estimate, while dashed lines show the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) limits. Means (filled circles) and HPD intervals (pipes) for coalescence times are provided in the figure with corresponding colors. Ne: effective population size.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384202&req=5

f3: Bayesian Skyline Plots of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.The solid line is the median estimate, while dashed lines show the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) limits. Means (filled circles) and HPD intervals (pipes) for coalescence times are provided in the figure with corresponding colors. Ne: effective population size.
Mentions: The hg U7 Bayesian skyline analysis (Fig. 3) shows a clear signal for an overall demographic expansion after the LGM. U7a drives the early stages of this demographic expansion, whereas the signal for U7b (the predominantly European subclade of hg U7) occurs much later, ~8–5 kya (Table 1 and Fig. 3). The subclades of U7a that are common in the Near East and South Asia (U7a1, U7a2, U7a3, and U7a10) are characterized by coalescence dates and a growth phase prior to the Holocene (Supplementary Figure S1 and Supplementary Table S4). Among those, U7a3 is both the oldest (~19 kya) and most frequent throughout these two areas, whilst U7a1, U7a2 and U7a10 are older than 12 kya. Clades U7a2, U7a3 and U7a10 have individual components, specific to the Near East and South Asia, suggesting that U7a was already differentiated in both regions by the end of the Pleistocene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.