Limits...
Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial Frequency Distribution Maps of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.Dots indicate the geographical locations of the surveyed populations. Population frequencies (%) correspond to those listed in Supplementary Table S3. Note the different frequency scales used in different maps. Maps were generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384202&req=5

f2: Spatial Frequency Distribution Maps of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.Dots indicate the geographical locations of the surveyed populations. Population frequencies (%) correspond to those listed in Supplementary Table S3. Note the different frequency scales used in different maps. Maps were generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).

Mentions: In agreement with previous observations16, U7c appears to be restricted to South Asia (Fig. 1A and Supplementary Figure S1). In contrast, U7a is the dominant branch of U7 throughout the Near East and South Asia with subclades specific to Central Asia (U7a12–15), Mediterranean and Southeast Europe (U7a17 and U7a19; Figs 1B and 2B, Supplementary Figure S1). U7b exhibits a higher frequency than U7a in Europe with elevated levels of diversity in the Mediterranean and southeastern regions (Figs 1C and 2C and Supplementary Figure S1). It is distributed also in the Near East, South and Central Asia.


Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7
Spatial Frequency Distribution Maps of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.Dots indicate the geographical locations of the surveyed populations. Population frequencies (%) correspond to those listed in Supplementary Table S3. Note the different frequency scales used in different maps. Maps were generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384202&req=5

f2: Spatial Frequency Distribution Maps of Haplogroups U7, U7a and U7b.Dots indicate the geographical locations of the surveyed populations. Population frequencies (%) correspond to those listed in Supplementary Table S3. Note the different frequency scales used in different maps. Maps were generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
Mentions: In agreement with previous observations16, U7c appears to be restricted to South Asia (Fig. 1A and Supplementary Figure S1). In contrast, U7a is the dominant branch of U7 throughout the Near East and South Asia with subclades specific to Central Asia (U7a12–15), Mediterranean and Southeast Europe (U7a17 and U7a19; Figs 1B and 2B, Supplementary Figure S1). U7b exhibits a higher frequency than U7a in Europe with elevated levels of diversity in the Mediterranean and southeastern regions (Figs 1C and 2C and Supplementary Figure S1). It is distributed also in the Near East, South and Central Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus