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Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

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ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic Representations of the U7, U7a and U7b Phylogenies.Subclades are represented by triangles, while single lineages are represented by lines. Subclades and single linage lines are colored according to their geographic origin, as shown in the map (lower right corner). (A) U7 tree. (B) U7a tree. (C) U7b tree. KYA – thousand years ago. Map was generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
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f1: Schematic Representations of the U7, U7a and U7b Phylogenies.Subclades are represented by triangles, while single lineages are represented by lines. Subclades and single linage lines are colored according to their geographic origin, as shown in the map (lower right corner). (A) U7 tree. (B) U7a tree. (C) U7b tree. KYA – thousand years ago. Map was generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).

Mentions: The maximum-parsimony reconstruction of 367 sequences of hg U7 yielded a tree with a basal hard polytomy that cannot be resolved (to a dichotomous one) at the level of whole-mtDNA sequence data: we identified eight independent branches that coalesce at the root of U7 (Fig. 1A and Supplementary Figure S1). Consistent with previous studies, we found that three major branches, U7a–c, capture most (96%) of the U7 mitogenomes. Besides these three previously known branches, we identified three additional clades, hereby designated as U7d, U7e, and U7f (Table 1). These were exclusively seen in Iran and the Caucasus. Finally, two mitogenomes – also from Iran and the Caucasus – did not cluster with any of hgs U7a–f and remained as unlabelled single lineages.


Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7
Schematic Representations of the U7, U7a and U7b Phylogenies.Subclades are represented by triangles, while single lineages are represented by lines. Subclades and single linage lines are colored according to their geographic origin, as shown in the map (lower right corner). (A) U7 tree. (B) U7a tree. (C) U7b tree. KYA – thousand years ago. Map was generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384202&req=5

f1: Schematic Representations of the U7, U7a and U7b Phylogenies.Subclades are represented by triangles, while single lineages are represented by lines. Subclades and single linage lines are colored according to their geographic origin, as shown in the map (lower right corner). (A) U7 tree. (B) U7a tree. (C) U7b tree. KYA – thousand years ago. Map was generated with Surfer program (version 8, Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, USA, https://www.goldensoftware.com/).
Mentions: The maximum-parsimony reconstruction of 367 sequences of hg U7 yielded a tree with a basal hard polytomy that cannot be resolved (to a dichotomous one) at the level of whole-mtDNA sequence data: we identified eight independent branches that coalesce at the root of U7 (Fig. 1A and Supplementary Figure S1). Consistent with previous studies, we found that three major branches, U7a–c, capture most (96%) of the U7 mitogenomes. Besides these three previously known branches, we identified three additional clades, hereby designated as U7d, U7e, and U7f (Table 1). These were exclusively seen in Iran and the Caucasus. Finally, two mitogenomes – also from Iran and the Caucasus – did not cluster with any of hgs U7a–f and remained as unlabelled single lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

No MeSH data available.