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The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running

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ABSTRACT

Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (−10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise) was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval): 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7) IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3) IU/L, respectively). However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase) than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (−4.4 to 37.0) IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6) IU/L, respectively) but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (−14.8 to 44.6) IU/L). Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase.

No MeSH data available.


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Menstrual phase comparison of the absolute serum creatine kinase (CK) activity pre- and post downhill running expressed as mean ± SD (a); and the magnitude of CK response post downhill running showing the individual data and average (---) change relative to pre-exercise and 95% confidence interval for early follicular (EF) group (b); late follicular (LF) group (c) and mid-luteal (ML) group (d). # and ### denotes a significant difference relative to pre-exercise (−20 min) within a group, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively.
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antioxidants-06-00016-f002: Menstrual phase comparison of the absolute serum creatine kinase (CK) activity pre- and post downhill running expressed as mean ± SD (a); and the magnitude of CK response post downhill running showing the individual data and average (---) change relative to pre-exercise and 95% confidence interval for early follicular (EF) group (b); late follicular (LF) group (c) and mid-luteal (ML) group (d). # and ### denotes a significant difference relative to pre-exercise (−20 min) within a group, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively.

Mentions: When the women were grouped according to menstrual phase, no significant difference was found in pre-exercise serum CK activity between menstrual phase groups (p = 0.52) (Figure 2a). Furthermore, the serum CK response to exercise peaked above pre-exercise values at 24 h in all menstrual phase groups (24 h verse pre-exercise; EF: p = 0.0003, ES = 3.15; LF: p = 0.048, ES = 1.83; ML: p = 0.042, ES = 1.87) and returned to pre-exercise levels by 48 h post exercise in all groups (48 h verse pre-exercise; EF: p = 0.34, ES = 1.13; LF: p = 0.76, ES = 0.67; ML: p = 0.99, ES = 0.11) (Figure 2b–d). Neither the 24-h nor 48-h CK response, expressed relative to pre-exercise, correlated with serum oestrogen concentration (r = −0.042, p = 0.88 and r = 0.037, p = 0.90, respectively). However, when data from an apparent outlier from the LF phase was omitted, a significant negative correlation was evident both for the 24-h and 48-h CK response expressed relative to pre-exercise and serum oestrogen concentration (r = −0.77, p = 0.001 and r = −0.78, p = 0.0009, respectively) (Figure 3a,b).


The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running
Menstrual phase comparison of the absolute serum creatine kinase (CK) activity pre- and post downhill running expressed as mean ± SD (a); and the magnitude of CK response post downhill running showing the individual data and average (---) change relative to pre-exercise and 95% confidence interval for early follicular (EF) group (b); late follicular (LF) group (c) and mid-luteal (ML) group (d). # and ### denotes a significant difference relative to pre-exercise (−20 min) within a group, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384179&req=5

antioxidants-06-00016-f002: Menstrual phase comparison of the absolute serum creatine kinase (CK) activity pre- and post downhill running expressed as mean ± SD (a); and the magnitude of CK response post downhill running showing the individual data and average (---) change relative to pre-exercise and 95% confidence interval for early follicular (EF) group (b); late follicular (LF) group (c) and mid-luteal (ML) group (d). # and ### denotes a significant difference relative to pre-exercise (−20 min) within a group, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively.
Mentions: When the women were grouped according to menstrual phase, no significant difference was found in pre-exercise serum CK activity between menstrual phase groups (p = 0.52) (Figure 2a). Furthermore, the serum CK response to exercise peaked above pre-exercise values at 24 h in all menstrual phase groups (24 h verse pre-exercise; EF: p = 0.0003, ES = 3.15; LF: p = 0.048, ES = 1.83; ML: p = 0.042, ES = 1.87) and returned to pre-exercise levels by 48 h post exercise in all groups (48 h verse pre-exercise; EF: p = 0.34, ES = 1.13; LF: p = 0.76, ES = 0.67; ML: p = 0.99, ES = 0.11) (Figure 2b–d). Neither the 24-h nor 48-h CK response, expressed relative to pre-exercise, correlated with serum oestrogen concentration (r = −0.042, p = 0.88 and r = 0.037, p = 0.90, respectively). However, when data from an apparent outlier from the LF phase was omitted, a significant negative correlation was evident both for the 24-h and 48-h CK response expressed relative to pre-exercise and serum oestrogen concentration (r = −0.77, p = 0.001 and r = −0.78, p = 0.0009, respectively) (Figure 3a,b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (&minus;10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise) was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval): 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7) IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3) IU/L, respectively). However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase) than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (&minus;4.4 to 37.0) IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6) IU/L, respectively) but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (&minus;14.8 to 44.6) IU/L). Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus