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In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT

This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic representation of reference (A) flavonoids, phenolics: (B) citric acid and (C) ferulic acid, and (D) carotenoids in IR analysis.
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antioxidants-06-00011-f002: Schematic representation of reference (A) flavonoids, phenolics: (B) citric acid and (C) ferulic acid, and (D) carotenoids in IR analysis.

Mentions: In addition, infrared technique was used in this study for the identification of other flavonoids and carotenoids in the citrus extracts. By using the virtue of fundamental and harmonic vibrational features, this technique enabled the estimation of either flavonoid, phenolic acid or carotenoid contents contained in a sample. Considering previous findings of flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid contents in the citrus extracts, the flavonoids and its derivatives, e.g. flavonols and either flavanones or flavanone-glycosides, phenolic acids, e.g. citric and ferulic acid, and carotenoids, e.g. lutein, zeaxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were considered as the reference spectra. The schematic chemical structures of the reference flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid are shown in Figure 2. The infrared transmission spectra of various citrus extracts of both peel and pulp are depicted in Figure 3A,B.


In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia
Schematic representation of reference (A) flavonoids, phenolics: (B) citric acid and (C) ferulic acid, and (D) carotenoids in IR analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384174&req=5

antioxidants-06-00011-f002: Schematic representation of reference (A) flavonoids, phenolics: (B) citric acid and (C) ferulic acid, and (D) carotenoids in IR analysis.
Mentions: In addition, infrared technique was used in this study for the identification of other flavonoids and carotenoids in the citrus extracts. By using the virtue of fundamental and harmonic vibrational features, this technique enabled the estimation of either flavonoid, phenolic acid or carotenoid contents contained in a sample. Considering previous findings of flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid contents in the citrus extracts, the flavonoids and its derivatives, e.g. flavonols and either flavanones or flavanone-glycosides, phenolic acids, e.g. citric and ferulic acid, and carotenoids, e.g. lutein, zeaxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were considered as the reference spectra. The schematic chemical structures of the reference flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid are shown in Figure 2. The infrared transmission spectra of various citrus extracts of both peel and pulp are depicted in Figure 3A,B.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects.

No MeSH data available.