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Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning

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ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning. The results showed that visuospatial working memory interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. In Experiment 2, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was used, in which the categorization task was integrated into the visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that visuospatial working memory affects information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. In Experiment 3, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was employed, in which visuospatial working memory was integrated into the category learning task. The results revealed that visuospatial working memory interferes with both rule-based and information-integration category learning. Through these three experiments, we found that, regarding the rule-based category learning, working memory load is the main mechanism by which visuospatial working memory influences the discovery of the category rules. In addition, regarding the information-integration category learning, visual resources mainly operates on the category representation.

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The learning curves of participants during the different blocks in the (A) RB and (B) II conditions.
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Figure 5: The learning curves of participants during the different blocks in the (A) RB and (B) II conditions.

Mentions: We conducted a 2 (category structure) × 2 (condition) × 4 (block) mixed design analysis of variance. This revealed a main effect of block, F(3,249) = 62.33, p < 0.001, = 0.43, indicating learning, and a main effect of category structure, F(1,83) = 8.98, p = 0.004, = 0.10, indicating superior accuracy overall for the RB category structure compared to the II category structure. There was no main effect of condition, F(1,83) = 1.20, p = 0.276, and no significant interactions between block and category structure, F(3,249) = 2.26, p = 0.082, or between block, category structure, and condition, F < 1. However, there were significant interactions between block and condition, F(3,249) = 2.90, p = 0.036, = 0.03 and between category structure and condition, F(1,83) = 3.99, p = 0.049 (Figure 5).


Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning
The learning curves of participants during the different blocks in the (A) RB and (B) II conditions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384164&req=5

Figure 5: The learning curves of participants during the different blocks in the (A) RB and (B) II conditions.
Mentions: We conducted a 2 (category structure) × 2 (condition) × 4 (block) mixed design analysis of variance. This revealed a main effect of block, F(3,249) = 62.33, p < 0.001, = 0.43, indicating learning, and a main effect of category structure, F(1,83) = 8.98, p = 0.004, = 0.10, indicating superior accuracy overall for the RB category structure compared to the II category structure. There was no main effect of condition, F(1,83) = 1.20, p = 0.276, and no significant interactions between block and category structure, F(3,249) = 2.26, p = 0.082, or between block, category structure, and condition, F < 1. However, there were significant interactions between block and condition, F(3,249) = 2.90, p = 0.036, = 0.03 and between category structure and condition, F(1,83) = 3.99, p = 0.049 (Figure 5).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning. The results showed that visuospatial working memory interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. In Experiment 2, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was used, in which the categorization task was integrated into the visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that visuospatial working memory affects information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. In Experiment 3, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was employed, in which visuospatial working memory was integrated into the category learning task. The results revealed that visuospatial working memory interferes with both rule-based and information-integration category learning. Through these three experiments, we found that, regarding the rule-based category learning, working memory load is the main mechanism by which visuospatial working memory influences the discovery of the category rules. In addition, regarding the information-integration category learning, visual resources mainly operates on the category representation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus