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Decoding Network Structure in On-Chip Integrated Flow Cells with Synchronization of Electrochemical Oscillators

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis. In dual electrode configuration, a variety coupling schemes, (uni- or bidirectional positive or negative) were identified depending on the relative placement of the reference and counter electrodes (e.g., placed at the same or the opposite ends of the flow channel). With three electrodes, the network consists of a superposition of a localized (upstream) and global (all-to-all) coupling. With six electrodes, the unique, position dependent coupling topology resulted spatially organized partial synchronization such that there was a synchrony gradient along the quasi-one-dimensional spatial coordinate. The networked, electrode potential (current) spike generating electrochemical reactions hold potential for construction of an in-situ information processing unit to be used in electrochemical devices in sensors and batteries.

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Three electrode networks with close placement to reservoir: dominating upstream coupling and spatially organized partial synchronization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: Shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 0.5 mm, D23 = 5.8 mm, D3R = 1.2 mm, R0 = 50 kΩ, V = 1.93 V. (b) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 4.2 mm, D3R = 1.0 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.68 V. (c) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 2.9 mm, D3R = 0.8 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.6 V.
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f6: Three electrode networks with close placement to reservoir: dominating upstream coupling and spatially organized partial synchronization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: Shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 0.5 mm, D23 = 5.8 mm, D3R = 1.2 mm, R0 = 50 kΩ, V = 1.93 V. (b) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 4.2 mm, D3R = 1.0 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.68 V. (c) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 2.9 mm, D3R = 0.8 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.6 V.

Mentions: When the distance between WE2 and WE3 (D23) is larger than the distance between WE3 and reservoir (D3R), the local (upstream) coupling between WE1 and WE2 will drive the synchrony; the coupling topology is shown in the top panel of Fig. 6. Therefore, it is expected that the two upstream electrodes will be more synchronized than the other electrode pairs. To confirm this expectation, we repeated several experiments when D23 > D3R (see Fig. 6(a–c)). The synchronization matrices in Fig. 6(d–f) always showed that the two upstream electrodes (1-2) are more synchronized than the other electrode pairs. We refer to this state as spatially organized partial synchrony (SOPS).


Decoding Network Structure in On-Chip Integrated Flow Cells with Synchronization of Electrochemical Oscillators
Three electrode networks with close placement to reservoir: dominating upstream coupling and spatially organized partial synchronization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: Shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 0.5 mm, D23 = 5.8 mm, D3R = 1.2 mm, R0 = 50 kΩ, V = 1.93 V. (b) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 4.2 mm, D3R = 1.0 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.68 V. (c) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 2.9 mm, D3R = 0.8 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.6 V.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f6: Three electrode networks with close placement to reservoir: dominating upstream coupling and spatially organized partial synchronization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: Shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 0.5 mm, D23 = 5.8 mm, D3R = 1.2 mm, R0 = 50 kΩ, V = 1.93 V. (b) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 4.2 mm, D3R = 1.0 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.68 V. (c) D12 = 1.8 mm, D23 = 2.9 mm, D3R = 0.8 mm, R0 = 20 kΩ, V = 1.6 V.
Mentions: When the distance between WE2 and WE3 (D23) is larger than the distance between WE3 and reservoir (D3R), the local (upstream) coupling between WE1 and WE2 will drive the synchrony; the coupling topology is shown in the top panel of Fig. 6. Therefore, it is expected that the two upstream electrodes will be more synchronized than the other electrode pairs. To confirm this expectation, we repeated several experiments when D23 > D3R (see Fig. 6(a–c)). The synchronization matrices in Fig. 6(d–f) always showed that the two upstream electrodes (1-2) are more synchronized than the other electrode pairs. We refer to this state as spatially organized partial synchrony (SOPS).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis. In dual electrode configuration, a variety coupling schemes, (uni- or bidirectional positive or negative) were identified depending on the relative placement of the reference and counter electrodes (e.g., placed at the same or the opposite ends of the flow channel). With three electrodes, the network consists of a superposition of a localized (upstream) and global (all-to-all) coupling. With six electrodes, the unique, position dependent coupling topology resulted spatially organized partial synchronization such that there was a synchrony gradient along the quasi-one-dimensional spatial coordinate. The networked, electrode potential (current) spike generating electrochemical reactions hold potential for construction of an in-situ information processing unit to be used in electrochemical devices in sensors and batteries.

No MeSH data available.