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Decoding Network Structure in On-Chip Integrated Flow Cells with Synchronization of Electrochemical Oscillators

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ABSTRACT

The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis. In dual electrode configuration, a variety coupling schemes, (uni- or bidirectional positive or negative) were identified depending on the relative placement of the reference and counter electrodes (e.g., placed at the same or the opposite ends of the flow channel). With three electrodes, the network consists of a superposition of a localized (upstream) and global (all-to-all) coupling. With six electrodes, the unique, position dependent coupling topology resulted spatially organized partial synchronization such that there was a synchrony gradient along the quasi-one-dimensional spatial coordinate. The networked, electrode potential (current) spike generating electrochemical reactions hold potential for construction of an in-situ information processing unit to be used in electrochemical devices in sensors and batteries.

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Three electrode networks with large distance to reservoir: dominating global coupling and partial synchronization without spatial organization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 2.9 mm, D23 = 3.0 mm, D3R = 11.9 mm, R0 = 100 kΩ, V = 2.30 V. (b) D12 = 3.7 mm, D23 = 1.4 mm, D3R = 12.4 mm, R0 = 120 kΩ, V = 2.55 V. (c) Same parameters as in panel (b) except for V = 2.45 V.
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f5: Three electrode networks with large distance to reservoir: dominating global coupling and partial synchronization without spatial organization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 2.9 mm, D23 = 3.0 mm, D3R = 11.9 mm, R0 = 100 kΩ, V = 2.30 V. (b) D12 = 3.7 mm, D23 = 1.4 mm, D3R = 12.4 mm, R0 = 120 kΩ, V = 2.55 V. (c) Same parameters as in panel (b) except for V = 2.45 V.

Mentions: With the use of more than two electrodes, a network of reaction units could be obtained. Here we consider only traditional placements of reference and counter electrodes placed at the end of the flow channel as shown in the schematics in Fig. 5(a). Based on theoretical circuit analysis (see Supporting Note), the network topology consists of global coupling between each electrode pairs and an additional local coupling between the two upstream electrodes, where RC is the solution collective resistance (depending on distance from electrode 3 to the reservoir), and R23 is the solution resistance between working electrodes 2 and electrode 3. The definitions of Kglobal and Klocal show that the coupling strengths between each electrode can be tuned by changing R23 and RC.


Decoding Network Structure in On-Chip Integrated Flow Cells with Synchronization of Electrochemical Oscillators
Three electrode networks with large distance to reservoir: dominating global coupling and partial synchronization without spatial organization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 2.9 mm, D23 = 3.0 mm, D3R = 11.9 mm, R0 = 100 kΩ, V = 2.30 V. (b) D12 = 3.7 mm, D23 = 1.4 mm, D3R = 12.4 mm, R0 = 120 kΩ, V = 2.55 V. (c) Same parameters as in panel (b) except for V = 2.45 V.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384074&req=5

f5: Three electrode networks with large distance to reservoir: dominating global coupling and partial synchronization without spatial organization.Top: coupling topology. (a–c) Schematics of cells: shaded circles denote synchronized electrodes. (d–f) Synchronization matrices for the corresponding experiments. (a) D12 = 2.9 mm, D23 = 3.0 mm, D3R = 11.9 mm, R0 = 100 kΩ, V = 2.30 V. (b) D12 = 3.7 mm, D23 = 1.4 mm, D3R = 12.4 mm, R0 = 120 kΩ, V = 2.55 V. (c) Same parameters as in panel (b) except for V = 2.45 V.
Mentions: With the use of more than two electrodes, a network of reaction units could be obtained. Here we consider only traditional placements of reference and counter electrodes placed at the end of the flow channel as shown in the schematics in Fig. 5(a). Based on theoretical circuit analysis (see Supporting Note), the network topology consists of global coupling between each electrode pairs and an additional local coupling between the two upstream electrodes, where RC is the solution collective resistance (depending on distance from electrode 3 to the reservoir), and R23 is the solution resistance between working electrodes 2 and electrode 3. The definitions of Kglobal and Klocal show that the coupling strengths between each electrode can be tuned by changing R23 and RC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis. In dual electrode configuration, a variety coupling schemes, (uni- or bidirectional positive or negative) were identified depending on the relative placement of the reference and counter electrodes (e.g., placed at the same or the opposite ends of the flow channel). With three electrodes, the network consists of a superposition of a localized (upstream) and global (all-to-all) coupling. With six electrodes, the unique, position dependent coupling topology resulted spatially organized partial synchronization such that there was a synchrony gradient along the quasi-one-dimensional spatial coordinate. The networked, electrode potential (current) spike generating electrochemical reactions hold potential for construction of an in-situ information processing unit to be used in electrochemical devices in sensors and batteries.

No MeSH data available.