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The Effect of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Loaded Squat Jump Performance

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed (1) to compare loaded squat jump performance after an acute and chronic exposure to a moderate natural altitude between normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, and (2) to analyze the effect of an altitude training camp on loaded jump squat development. Sixteen male swimmers (17.1 ± 0.8 years) took part in a 17-day training camp at a natural moderate altitude. They were randomly tested in counterbalanced order on days 1 and 3 in normoxia and hypoxia (pretest) and on days 15 and 17 again in normoxia and hypoxia (posttest). The peak velocity reached with loads equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of swimmers’ pretest body weight in the loaded squat jump exercise was the dependent variable analyzed. An overall increase in peak velocity during the test performed in hypoxia of 6.5% in pretest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.98) and 4.5% in posttest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.81) was observed. An overall increment in peak velocity of 4.0% considering the data for normoxia tests (p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) and 2.1% considering the data for hypoxia tests (p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) was achieved after the altitude training camp. These results highlight the beneficial effects of hypobaric hypoxia on jump performance after short and longer term exposure to a natural moderate altitude. The increase in loaded squat jump performance following the 17-day training camp suggests that altitude training could constitute a favorable stimulus in explosive strength.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chronic effects of the altitude training camp on peak bar velocity during the loaded jump squat. Graphs A and B show the comparison of mean values with the four loads used. Graphs C and D show individual responses using the average peak velocity value of the four loads. N1, pretest conducted in normoxia; N2, posttest conducted in normoxia; H1, pretest conducted in hypoxia; H2, posttest conducted in hypoxia; CI, 95% confidence interval; p, statistical significance; ES, effect size ([mean posttest – mean pretest] / SD pretest). Standard deviations were omitted for clarity but are included in Table 1.
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j_hukin-2017-0032_fig_003: Chronic effects of the altitude training camp on peak bar velocity during the loaded jump squat. Graphs A and B show the comparison of mean values with the four loads used. Graphs C and D show individual responses using the average peak velocity value of the four loads. N1, pretest conducted in normoxia; N2, posttest conducted in normoxia; H1, pretest conducted in hypoxia; H2, posttest conducted in hypoxia; CI, 95% confidence interval; p, statistical significance; ES, effect size ([mean posttest – mean pretest] / SD pretest). Standard deviations were omitted for clarity but are included in Table 1.

Mentions: Significant increases in PV were observed after the training period with the four loads analyzed (Figure 3). An overall increment of 4.0% (95% CI = 2.3–5.8%, p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) considering the data for normoxia tests and 2.1% (95% CI = 0.6–3.7%, p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) considering the data for hypoxia tests was achieved. Analysis of the data recorded in normoxia showed that 75% of the swimmers (n = 12) improved PV performance by more than 1%, whereas changes in the remaining 25% of the subjects (n = 4) were between +1% and −1%. Considering the data recorded in hypoxia, 62.5% of the swimmers (n = 10) improved PV performance by more than 1%, 25% (n = 4) were between +1% and −1%, and 12.5% (n = 2) showed a reduction in PV performance by more than 1%.


The Effect of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Loaded Squat Jump Performance
Chronic effects of the altitude training camp on peak bar velocity during the loaded jump squat. Graphs A and B show the comparison of mean values with the four loads used. Graphs C and D show individual responses using the average peak velocity value of the four loads. N1, pretest conducted in normoxia; N2, posttest conducted in normoxia; H1, pretest conducted in hypoxia; H2, posttest conducted in hypoxia; CI, 95% confidence interval; p, statistical significance; ES, effect size ([mean posttest – mean pretest] / SD pretest). Standard deviations were omitted for clarity but are included in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384062&req=5

j_hukin-2017-0032_fig_003: Chronic effects of the altitude training camp on peak bar velocity during the loaded jump squat. Graphs A and B show the comparison of mean values with the four loads used. Graphs C and D show individual responses using the average peak velocity value of the four loads. N1, pretest conducted in normoxia; N2, posttest conducted in normoxia; H1, pretest conducted in hypoxia; H2, posttest conducted in hypoxia; CI, 95% confidence interval; p, statistical significance; ES, effect size ([mean posttest – mean pretest] / SD pretest). Standard deviations were omitted for clarity but are included in Table 1.
Mentions: Significant increases in PV were observed after the training period with the four loads analyzed (Figure 3). An overall increment of 4.0% (95% CI = 2.3–5.8%, p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) considering the data for normoxia tests and 2.1% (95% CI = 0.6–3.7%, p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) considering the data for hypoxia tests was achieved. Analysis of the data recorded in normoxia showed that 75% of the swimmers (n = 12) improved PV performance by more than 1%, whereas changes in the remaining 25% of the subjects (n = 4) were between +1% and −1%. Considering the data recorded in hypoxia, 62.5% of the swimmers (n = 10) improved PV performance by more than 1%, 25% (n = 4) were between +1% and −1%, and 12.5% (n = 2) showed a reduction in PV performance by more than 1%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed (1) to compare loaded squat jump performance after an acute and chronic exposure to a moderate natural altitude between normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, and (2) to analyze the effect of an altitude training camp on loaded jump squat development. Sixteen male swimmers (17.1 &plusmn; 0.8 years) took part in a 17-day training camp at a natural moderate altitude. They were randomly tested in counterbalanced order on days 1 and 3 in normoxia and hypoxia (pretest) and on days 15 and 17 again in normoxia and hypoxia (posttest). The peak velocity reached with loads equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of swimmers&rsquo; pretest body weight in the loaded squat jump exercise was the dependent variable analyzed. An overall increase in peak velocity during the test performed in hypoxia of 6.5% in pretest (p &lt; 0.001, ES = 0.98) and 4.5% in posttest (p &lt; 0.001, ES = 0.81) was observed. An overall increment in peak velocity of 4.0% considering the data for normoxia tests (p &lt; 0.001, ES = 0.61) and 2.1% considering the data for hypoxia tests (p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) was achieved after the altitude training camp. These results highlight the beneficial effects of hypobaric hypoxia on jump performance after short and longer term exposure to a natural moderate altitude. The increase in loaded squat jump performance following the 17-day training camp suggests that altitude training could constitute a favorable stimulus in explosive strength.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus