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Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species

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ABSTRACT

The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

No MeSH data available.


The feasibility of distinguishing three species (dugong, Asian elephant and tiger) by the elemental composition of tusks and teeth.Canonical discriminant function plots of the elemental composition of dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth. Mg = magnesium, Si = silicon, P = phosphorus, Cl = chlorine, K = potassium, Ca = calcium, Ti = titanium, V = vanadium, Cr = chromium, Mn = manganese, Co = cobalt, Ni = nickel, Cu = copper, Zn = zinc, Zr = zirconium, Ag = silver, Sb = antimony.
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f5: The feasibility of distinguishing three species (dugong, Asian elephant and tiger) by the elemental composition of tusks and teeth.Canonical discriminant function plots of the elemental composition of dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth. Mg = magnesium, Si = silicon, P = phosphorus, Cl = chlorine, K = potassium, Ca = calcium, Ti = titanium, V = vanadium, Cr = chromium, Mn = manganese, Co = cobalt, Ni = nickel, Cu = copper, Zn = zinc, Zr = zirconium, Ag = silver, Sb = antimony.

Mentions: As shown in Fig. 5, a discrepancy of discriminant values between dugong tusks and teeth, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth was noted, indicating a high correct prediction rate among species of 98.2% (Table 10). However, there was a small misclassification within tiger canines, which were predicted as Asian elephant and dugong tusks 26.3% and 2.6% of the time, respectively.


Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species
The feasibility of distinguishing three species (dugong, Asian elephant and tiger) by the elemental composition of tusks and teeth.Canonical discriminant function plots of the elemental composition of dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth. Mg = magnesium, Si = silicon, P = phosphorus, Cl = chlorine, K = potassium, Ca = calcium, Ti = titanium, V = vanadium, Cr = chromium, Mn = manganese, Co = cobalt, Ni = nickel, Cu = copper, Zn = zinc, Zr = zirconium, Ag = silver, Sb = antimony.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384008&req=5

f5: The feasibility of distinguishing three species (dugong, Asian elephant and tiger) by the elemental composition of tusks and teeth.Canonical discriminant function plots of the elemental composition of dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth. Mg = magnesium, Si = silicon, P = phosphorus, Cl = chlorine, K = potassium, Ca = calcium, Ti = titanium, V = vanadium, Cr = chromium, Mn = manganese, Co = cobalt, Ni = nickel, Cu = copper, Zn = zinc, Zr = zirconium, Ag = silver, Sb = antimony.
Mentions: As shown in Fig. 5, a discrepancy of discriminant values between dugong tusks and teeth, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth was noted, indicating a high correct prediction rate among species of 98.2% (Table 10). However, there was a small misclassification within tiger canines, which were predicted as Asian elephant and dugong tusks 26.3% and 2.6% of the time, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

No MeSH data available.