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Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species

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ABSTRACT

The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

No MeSH data available.


Scanned locations on dugong tusks.(A) Schematic of tusk crown and root in study 1. (B) Three different tusk layers in study 2. (C) Small tusks and (D) large tusks in study 3.
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f1: Scanned locations on dugong tusks.(A) Schematic of tusk crown and root in study 1. (B) Three different tusk layers in study 2. (C) Small tusks and (D) large tusks in study 3.

Mentions: This study compared the elemental composition between the crown and root of dugong tusks. In this study, 10 tusks were used as subjects. We scanned the crown (2 or 3 different locations) and root (3 or 4 different locations) of each tusk (Fig. 1A). Elements were presented as a percentage and were compared between the two groups using Mann–Whitney U test for nonparametric data analysis.


Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species
Scanned locations on dugong tusks.(A) Schematic of tusk crown and root in study 1. (B) Three different tusk layers in study 2. (C) Small tusks and (D) large tusks in study 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5384008&req=5

f1: Scanned locations on dugong tusks.(A) Schematic of tusk crown and root in study 1. (B) Three different tusk layers in study 2. (C) Small tusks and (D) large tusks in study 3.
Mentions: This study compared the elemental composition between the crown and root of dugong tusks. In this study, 10 tusks were used as subjects. We scanned the crown (2 or 3 different locations) and root (3 or 4 different locations) of each tusk (Fig. 1A). Elements were presented as a percentage and were compared between the two groups using Mann–Whitney U test for nonparametric data analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

No MeSH data available.