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Effect of traditional Chinese medicine formula Sinisan on chronic restraint stress-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a rat study

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common forms of liver disease worldwide, and it is always regarded as a consequence of a sedentary, food-abundant lifestyle, sitting for an extended time, and a low physical activity level, which often coincide with chronic and long-lasting psychological stress. A Chinese medicine Sinisan (SNS) may be a potential formula for treating this kind of disease.

Methods: In this study, a long-term chronic restraint stress protocol was used to investigate the mechanism underlying stress-induced NALFD. To investigate the effect of SNS treatment on stress-induced NAFLD, we measured the liver and serum values of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), liver free fatty acids (FFA), low-density lipoprotein, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, interleukin (IL)-6, and serum values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase. Results are shown as a mean ± standard deviation. Significant differences between the groups were evaluated using the Student t-test. For multiple comparisons, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. If the results of ANOVA indicated significant differences, post hoc analysis was performed with the Tukey test or Dunnett test, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Long-term chronic stress led to steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Additionally, SNS treatment significantly increased body weight gain (p < 0.01) and sucrose preference (p < 0.001), and it reduced the liver values of TC, TG, and FFA (p < 0.05). SNS also reduced the serum values of AST and ALT (p < 0.001), and the liver value of IL-6 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study’s results demonstrate that psychological stress may be a significant risk factor of NAFLD. Furthermore, the traditional Chinese medicine formula SNS may have some beneficial effect in antagonizing psychological stress and stress-related NAFLD.

No MeSH data available.


Schedule of the procedures used in the present study. The tests included the open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). CRS, chronic restraint stress; BW, body weight
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Fig1: Schedule of the procedures used in the present study. The tests included the open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). CRS, chronic restraint stress; BW, body weight

Mentions: The long-term chronic restraint stress procedure was performed according to a previous study [35] with minor modifications. This procedure mimics stress that is largely psychological in nature. In brief, restraint stress was applied using a plastic restrainer (550-mL cubage water bottle, Nongfu Spring Company Limited and 600-mL cubage water bottle, Danone) with multiple punctures that enabled it to closely fit over the mice. The rats were restrained for 6 h per day for 9 consecutive weeks. The stress procedure was conducted at the institutional animal facility throughout the experimental period between 10 am and 4 pm. Immediately after terminating the stress exposure, animals returned to their home cages. The control rats were not disturbed during the 9-week period, and they remained isolated from the stressed animals with access to food or water during the same period of stress to avoid any acoustic or olfactory communication between the groups. The time schedule for the CRS procedure is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Effect of traditional Chinese medicine formula Sinisan on chronic restraint stress-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a rat study
Schedule of the procedures used in the present study. The tests included the open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). CRS, chronic restraint stress; BW, body weight
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383977&req=5

Fig1: Schedule of the procedures used in the present study. The tests included the open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). CRS, chronic restraint stress; BW, body weight
Mentions: The long-term chronic restraint stress procedure was performed according to a previous study [35] with minor modifications. This procedure mimics stress that is largely psychological in nature. In brief, restraint stress was applied using a plastic restrainer (550-mL cubage water bottle, Nongfu Spring Company Limited and 600-mL cubage water bottle, Danone) with multiple punctures that enabled it to closely fit over the mice. The rats were restrained for 6 h per day for 9 consecutive weeks. The stress procedure was conducted at the institutional animal facility throughout the experimental period between 10 am and 4 pm. Immediately after terminating the stress exposure, animals returned to their home cages. The control rats were not disturbed during the 9-week period, and they remained isolated from the stressed animals with access to food or water during the same period of stress to avoid any acoustic or olfactory communication between the groups. The time schedule for the CRS procedure is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common forms of liver disease worldwide, and it is always regarded as a consequence of a sedentary, food-abundant lifestyle, sitting for an extended time, and a low physical activity level, which often coincide with chronic and long-lasting psychological stress. A Chinese medicine Sinisan (SNS) may be a potential formula for treating this kind of disease.

Methods: In this study, a long-term chronic restraint stress protocol was used to investigate the mechanism underlying stress-induced NALFD. To investigate the effect of SNS treatment on stress-induced NAFLD, we measured the liver and serum values of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), liver free fatty acids (FFA), low-density lipoprotein, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, interleukin (IL)-6, and serum values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase. Results are shown as a mean ± standard deviation. Significant differences between the groups were evaluated using the Student t-test. For multiple comparisons, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. If the results of ANOVA indicated significant differences, post hoc analysis was performed with the Tukey test or Dunnett test, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Long-term chronic stress led to steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Additionally, SNS treatment significantly increased body weight gain (p < 0.01) and sucrose preference (p < 0.001), and it reduced the liver values of TC, TG, and FFA (p < 0.05). SNS also reduced the serum values of AST and ALT (p < 0.001), and the liver value of IL-6 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study’s results demonstrate that psychological stress may be a significant risk factor of NAFLD. Furthermore, the traditional Chinese medicine formula SNS may have some beneficial effect in antagonizing psychological stress and stress-related NAFLD.

No MeSH data available.