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The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models

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ABSTRACT

The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands.

No MeSH data available.


(a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis clathrata. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
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RSOS161002F6: (a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis clathrata. All scale bars represent 1 mm.

Mentions: In both species examined here, CuP is nearly always straddled by a light pattern element. There are only two exceptions: on the right wing of one specimen, CuP is clearly surrounded by dark scales (figure 4d), and on the left wing of another specimen, CuP is surrounded by a small patch of dark scales that is only noticeable at high magnification (figure 6c). Light wing pattern elements occur between nearly all pairs of adjacent wing veins along the dorsum, as is the case along the costa. In female M. clathrata, CuP is the only vein that is ever straddled by a light pattern element. But in males of both M. clathrata and M. australasiella, CuA1+M3 is usually also straddled by a light pattern element (figures 7a–d and 5b–e, respectively). A light pattern element also straddles M3 in one female M. australasiella specimen (figure 4a).Figure 6.


The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models
(a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis clathrata. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383847&req=5

RSOS161002F6: (a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis clathrata. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
Mentions: In both species examined here, CuP is nearly always straddled by a light pattern element. There are only two exceptions: on the right wing of one specimen, CuP is clearly surrounded by dark scales (figure 4d), and on the left wing of another specimen, CuP is surrounded by a small patch of dark scales that is only noticeable at high magnification (figure 6c). Light wing pattern elements occur between nearly all pairs of adjacent wing veins along the dorsum, as is the case along the costa. In female M. clathrata, CuP is the only vein that is ever straddled by a light pattern element. But in males of both M. clathrata and M. australasiella, CuA1+M3 is usually also straddled by a light pattern element (figures 7a–d and 5b–e, respectively). A light pattern element also straddles M3 in one female M. australasiella specimen (figure 4a).Figure 6.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands.

No MeSH data available.