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The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models

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ABSTRACT

The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands.

No MeSH data available.


(a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis australasiella. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
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RSOS161002F4: (a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis australasiella. All scale bars represent 1 mm.

Mentions: In M. australasiella, Rs4 occasionally terminates past the apex (figure 4e) and Rs1+Rs2 can become fused (figure 5d). The relationship between wing pattern and wing venation occasionally follows the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model (figure 4d). However, a light pattern element usually surrounds Rs3 (figures 4a,b,c,e and 5a,d,e). In other specimens, a single light pattern element surrounds Rs3 and Rs4 at the costa (figure 5b), or light pattern elements surround both Rs1 and Rs3 (figure 5c).Figure 4.


The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models
(a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis australasiella. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383847&req=5

RSOS161002F4: (a–e) Wing pattern and wing venation of female Moerarchis australasiella. All scale bars represent 1 mm.
Mentions: In M. australasiella, Rs4 occasionally terminates past the apex (figure 4e) and Rs1+Rs2 can become fused (figure 5d). The relationship between wing pattern and wing venation occasionally follows the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model (figure 4d). However, a light pattern element usually surrounds Rs3 (figures 4a,b,c,e and 5a,d,e). In other specimens, a single light pattern element surrounds Rs3 and Rs4 at the costa (figure 5b), or light pattern elements surround both Rs1 and Rs3 (figure 5c).Figure 4.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands.

No MeSH data available.