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Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos )

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ABSTRACT

Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

No MeSH data available.


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Cranial arteries of the stillborn alpaca, Vicugna pacos, (a) superficial lateral perspective and (b) deep lateral perspective with supraorbital (s'orb), dentary (dent) and zygomatic (zyg) bones cut. Sectioned arteries are indicated in orange. Perfusion did not extend rostrally beyond the skull, into the soft tissue structures of the nasal and labial regions. ALA, alar artery; BUC, buccal artery; CCA, common carotid artery; CMA, ‘common’ auricular artery; DNA, dorsal nasal artery; EO, external ophthalmic artery; FA, facial artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; IOB, infraorbital artery; LA, lingual artery; MA, maxillary artery; OC, occipital artery; OPR, ophthalmic rete; STA, superficial temporal artery; TFA, transverse facial artery.
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RSOS160967F5: Cranial arteries of the stillborn alpaca, Vicugna pacos, (a) superficial lateral perspective and (b) deep lateral perspective with supraorbital (s'orb), dentary (dent) and zygomatic (zyg) bones cut. Sectioned arteries are indicated in orange. Perfusion did not extend rostrally beyond the skull, into the soft tissue structures of the nasal and labial regions. ALA, alar artery; BUC, buccal artery; CCA, common carotid artery; CMA, ‘common’ auricular artery; DNA, dorsal nasal artery; EO, external ophthalmic artery; FA, facial artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; IOB, infraorbital artery; LA, lingual artery; MA, maxillary artery; OC, occipital artery; OPR, ophthalmic rete; STA, superficial temporal artery; TFA, transverse facial artery.

Mentions: A single stillborn alpaca was available as a representative of early developmental stages. The stillborn alpaca (age estimated as proximate to full gestation) had been preserved in formalin for several years prior to injection. As such, the arterial walls were hardened and several distributing arteries (infraorbital, labial and dorsal nasal) did not perfuse into the rostral-most soft tissues (figure 5). The stillborn alpaca specimen included both head and neck, providing an opportunity to describe the branches of the CCA (a. carotis communis) low in the neck (figure 5).Figure 5.


Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos )
Cranial arteries of the stillborn alpaca, Vicugna pacos, (a) superficial lateral perspective and (b) deep lateral perspective with supraorbital (s'orb), dentary (dent) and zygomatic (zyg) bones cut. Sectioned arteries are indicated in orange. Perfusion did not extend rostrally beyond the skull, into the soft tissue structures of the nasal and labial regions. ALA, alar artery; BUC, buccal artery; CCA, common carotid artery; CMA, ‘common’ auricular artery; DNA, dorsal nasal artery; EO, external ophthalmic artery; FA, facial artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; IOB, infraorbital artery; LA, lingual artery; MA, maxillary artery; OC, occipital artery; OPR, ophthalmic rete; STA, superficial temporal artery; TFA, transverse facial artery.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383842&req=5

RSOS160967F5: Cranial arteries of the stillborn alpaca, Vicugna pacos, (a) superficial lateral perspective and (b) deep lateral perspective with supraorbital (s'orb), dentary (dent) and zygomatic (zyg) bones cut. Sectioned arteries are indicated in orange. Perfusion did not extend rostrally beyond the skull, into the soft tissue structures of the nasal and labial regions. ALA, alar artery; BUC, buccal artery; CCA, common carotid artery; CMA, ‘common’ auricular artery; DNA, dorsal nasal artery; EO, external ophthalmic artery; FA, facial artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; IOB, infraorbital artery; LA, lingual artery; MA, maxillary artery; OC, occipital artery; OPR, ophthalmic rete; STA, superficial temporal artery; TFA, transverse facial artery.
Mentions: A single stillborn alpaca was available as a representative of early developmental stages. The stillborn alpaca (age estimated as proximate to full gestation) had been preserved in formalin for several years prior to injection. As such, the arterial walls were hardened and several distributing arteries (infraorbital, labial and dorsal nasal) did not perfuse into the rostral-most soft tissues (figure 5). The stillborn alpaca specimen included both head and neck, providing an opportunity to describe the branches of the CCA (a. carotis communis) low in the neck (figure 5).Figure 5.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus