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A test of male infanticide as a reproductive tactic in a cichlid fish

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ABSTRACT

Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning. Females spawned again sooner if their broods were removed than if they were cared for. Egg cannibalism occurred frequently after a group takeover event, and was rarer if the original male remained with the group. While dominant breeder females were initially highly aggressive towards newcomer males that took over the group, the degree of resistance depended on relative body size differences between the new pair and, ultimately, female aggression did not prevent egg cannibalism. Egg cannibalism, however, did not shorten the duration until subsequent spawning, or increase fecundity during subsequent breeding in our laboratory setting. Our results show that infanticide as mediated through group takeovers is a taxonomically widespread behaviour.

No MeSH data available.


Female resistance to male takeover was high when females were larger than the takeover males, but diminished when the takeover males were larger (dashed line). This pattern was not observed in the control groups (solid line). 95% confidence intervals shown. ** indicates p < 0.01.
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RSOS160891F2: Female resistance to male takeover was high when females were larger than the takeover males, but diminished when the takeover males were larger (dashed line). This pattern was not observed in the control groups (solid line). 95% confidence intervals shown. ** indicates p < 0.01.

Mentions: More aggression was observed in the takeover groups (mean ± s.d., 67.1 ± 42.4 aggressive acts/20 min) than in control groups (13.3 ± 12.0 aggressive acts/20 min). While female resistance was not related to brood size (LM, t = −0.16, N = 39, p = 0.88), it was correlated with male–female size disparity, but only in the takeover groups (LM, interaction, t = −2.80, N = 39, p = 0.008, adjusted R2 = 0.42; figure 2).Figure 2.


A test of male infanticide as a reproductive tactic in a cichlid fish
Female resistance to male takeover was high when females were larger than the takeover males, but diminished when the takeover males were larger (dashed line). This pattern was not observed in the control groups (solid line). 95% confidence intervals shown. ** indicates p < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383833&req=5

RSOS160891F2: Female resistance to male takeover was high when females were larger than the takeover males, but diminished when the takeover males were larger (dashed line). This pattern was not observed in the control groups (solid line). 95% confidence intervals shown. ** indicates p < 0.01.
Mentions: More aggression was observed in the takeover groups (mean ± s.d., 67.1 ± 42.4 aggressive acts/20 min) than in control groups (13.3 ± 12.0 aggressive acts/20 min). While female resistance was not related to brood size (LM, t = −0.16, N = 39, p = 0.88), it was correlated with male–female size disparity, but only in the takeover groups (LM, interaction, t = −2.80, N = 39, p = 0.008, adjusted R2 = 0.42; figure 2).Figure 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning. Females spawned again sooner if their broods were removed than if they were cared for. Egg cannibalism occurred frequently after a group takeover event, and was rarer if the original male remained with the group. While dominant breeder females were initially highly aggressive towards newcomer males that took over the group, the degree of resistance depended on relative body size differences between the new pair and, ultimately, female aggression did not prevent egg cannibalism. Egg cannibalism, however, did not shorten the duration until subsequent spawning, or increase fecundity during subsequent breeding in our laboratory setting. Our results show that infanticide as mediated through group takeovers is a taxonomically widespread behaviour.

No MeSH data available.