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Evidence for a genetic sex determination in Cnidaria, the Mediterranean red coral ( Corallium rubrum )

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ABSTRACT

Sexual reproduction is widespread among eukaryotes, and the sex-determining processes vary greatly among species. While genetic sex determination (GSD) has been intensively described in bilaterian species, no example has yet been recorded among non-bilaterians. However, the quasi-ubiquitous repartition of GSD among multicellular species suggests that similar evolutionary forces can promote this system, and that these forces could occur also in non-bilaterians. Studying sex determination across the range of Metazoan diversity is indeed important to understand better the evolution of this mechanism and its lability. We tested the existence of sex-linked genes in the gonochoric red coral (Corallium rubrum, Cnidaria) using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. We analysed 27 461 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 354 individuals from 12 populations including 53 that were morphologically sexed. We found a strong association between the allele frequencies of 472 SNPs and the sex of individuals, suggesting an XX/XY sex-determination system. This result was confirmed by the identification of 435 male-specific loci. An independent test confirmed that the amplification of these loci enabled us to identify males with absolute certainty. This is the first demonstration of a GSD system among non-bilaterian species and a new example of its convergence in multicellular eukaryotes.

No MeSH data available.


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Mentions: The presence of sex-linked loci, i.e. loci common to the two sex chromosomes but presenting differences in allele frequencies between sex (figure 1a), was explored by performing a principal component analysis (PCA) using the package adegenet in R [22,23]. This analysis was performed on the total dataset (12 populations). The dataset was centred and missing data were replaced by the mean allele frequency for each locus.Figure 1.


Evidence for a genetic sex determination in Cnidaria, the Mediterranean red coral ( Corallium rubrum )
(Captionopposite.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383831&req=5

RSOS160880F1: (Captionopposite.)
Mentions: The presence of sex-linked loci, i.e. loci common to the two sex chromosomes but presenting differences in allele frequencies between sex (figure 1a), was explored by performing a principal component analysis (PCA) using the package adegenet in R [22,23]. This analysis was performed on the total dataset (12 populations). The dataset was centred and missing data were replaced by the mean allele frequency for each locus.Figure 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sexual reproduction is widespread among eukaryotes, and the sex-determining processes vary greatly among species. While genetic sex determination (GSD) has been intensively described in bilaterian species, no example has yet been recorded among non-bilaterians. However, the quasi-ubiquitous repartition of GSD among multicellular species suggests that similar evolutionary forces can promote this system, and that these forces could occur also in non-bilaterians. Studying sex determination across the range of Metazoan diversity is indeed important to understand better the evolution of this mechanism and its lability. We tested the existence of sex-linked genes in the gonochoric red coral (Corallium rubrum, Cnidaria) using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. We analysed 27 461 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 354 individuals from 12 populations including 53 that were morphologically sexed. We found a strong association between the allele frequencies of 472 SNPs and the sex of individuals, suggesting an XX/XY sex-determination system. This result was confirmed by the identification of 435 male-specific loci. An independent test confirmed that the amplification of these loci enabled us to identify males with absolute certainty. This is the first demonstration of a GSD system among non-bilaterian species and a new example of its convergence in multicellular eukaryotes.

No MeSH data available.