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Changes in body composition and bone of female collegiate soccer players through the competitive season and off-season

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC).

Methods:: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season.

Results:: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9±0.2 kg, p<0.01; not different from controls, p=0.2) and gained fat mass post-off (1.4±0.3 kg, p<0.01; differed from controls, p=0.01). Baseline femoral neck and hip aBMD were higher in SC than controls (both, p<0.04), but increased in controls more than SC in pre-post and decreased post-off. SC cortical bone mineral content (BMC), cortical area and periosteal circumference increased pre-post (all, p<0.01; differed from controls, p<0.05) and trabecular vBMD decreased post-off (-3.0±1.3 mg/cm3; p=0.02; not different from controls, p=0.4). Both SC and controls increased cortical BMC, cortical area, and thickness post-off (all, p<0.01).

Conclusion:: Soccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete’s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in peak torque at 180°/s (FPT 180, Panel A), peak torque at 360°/s (FPT 360, Panel B), hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 180°/s (H/Q 180, Panel C), and hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 360°/s (H/Q 360, Panel D) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter A indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter B indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. Least significant changes for Biodex measurements are not available.
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Figure 4: Changes in peak torque at 180°/s (FPT 180, Panel A), peak torque at 360°/s (FPT 360, Panel B), hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 180°/s (H/Q 180, Panel C), and hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 360°/s (H/Q 360, Panel D) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter A indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter B indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. Least significant changes for Biodex measurements are not available.

Mentions: Strength: Control subjects increased their FPT at 180°/s (p<0.01), but this change was not different from soccer players (Figure 4A). Soccer players increased FPT at 360°/s (p<0.01), but this was not different from the control group (Figure 4B). Only the starter group showed an increase in FPT at 180°/s (3.7±1.8 ft-lbs, p=0.04) and 360°/s (5.1±2.0 ft-lbs, p=0.01). The increase observed in starters at 180°/s and 360°/s was not different from non-starters, but the increase at 360°/s was different from controls (-1.0±1.6 ft-lbs, p=0.04). The results did not change when peak torque was normalized to body weight. Change in lean mass did not explain changes in strength.


Changes in body composition and bone of female collegiate soccer players through the competitive season and off-season
Changes in peak torque at 180°/s (FPT 180, Panel A), peak torque at 360°/s (FPT 360, Panel B), hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 180°/s (H/Q 180, Panel C), and hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 360°/s (H/Q 360, Panel D) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter A indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter B indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. Least significant changes for Biodex measurements are not available.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383767&req=5

Figure 4: Changes in peak torque at 180°/s (FPT 180, Panel A), peak torque at 360°/s (FPT 360, Panel B), hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 180°/s (H/Q 180, Panel C), and hamstring/quadriceps ratio at 360°/s (H/Q 360, Panel D) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter A indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter B indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. Least significant changes for Biodex measurements are not available.
Mentions: Strength: Control subjects increased their FPT at 180°/s (p<0.01), but this change was not different from soccer players (Figure 4A). Soccer players increased FPT at 360°/s (p<0.01), but this was not different from the control group (Figure 4B). Only the starter group showed an increase in FPT at 180°/s (3.7±1.8 ft-lbs, p=0.04) and 360°/s (5.1±2.0 ft-lbs, p=0.01). The increase observed in starters at 180°/s and 360°/s was not different from non-starters, but the increase at 360°/s was different from controls (-1.0±1.6 ft-lbs, p=0.04). The results did not change when peak torque was normalized to body weight. Change in lean mass did not explain changes in strength.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC).

Methods:: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season.

Results:: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9&plusmn;0.2 kg, p&lt;0.01; not different from controls, p=0.2) and gained fat mass post-off (1.4&plusmn;0.3 kg, p&lt;0.01; differed from controls, p=0.01). Baseline femoral neck and hip aBMD were higher in SC than controls (both, p&lt;0.04), but increased in controls more than SC in pre-post and decreased post-off. SC cortical bone mineral content (BMC), cortical area and periosteal circumference increased pre-post (all, p&lt;0.01; differed from controls, p&lt;0.05) and trabecular vBMD decreased post-off (-3.0&plusmn;1.3 mg/cm3; p=0.02; not different from controls, p=0.4). Both SC and controls increased cortical BMC, cortical area, and thickness post-off (all, p&lt;0.01).

Conclusion:: Soccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete&rsquo;s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur.

No MeSH data available.