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Changes in body composition and bone of female collegiate soccer players through the competitive season and off-season

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ABSTRACT

Objectives:: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC).

Methods:: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season.

Results:: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9±0.2 kg, p<0.01; not different from controls, p=0.2) and gained fat mass post-off (1.4±0.3 kg, p<0.01; differed from controls, p=0.01). Baseline femoral neck and hip aBMD were higher in SC than controls (both, p<0.04), but increased in controls more than SC in pre-post and decreased post-off. SC cortical bone mineral content (BMC), cortical area and periosteal circumference increased pre-post (all, p<0.01; differed from controls, p<0.05) and trabecular vBMD decreased post-off (-3.0±1.3 mg/cm3; p=0.02; not different from controls, p=0.4). Both SC and controls increased cortical BMC, cortical area, and thickness post-off (all, p<0.01).

Conclusion:: Soccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete’s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in trabecular vBMD (Trab vBMD, Panel A), periosteal circumference (Peri C, Panel B), cortical thickness (Panel C), cortical vBMD (Panel D), and pSSI (Panel E) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter a indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter b indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. LSC= least significant change. *There was a significant difference in periosteal circumference mean change between the soccer player group and the control group from pre- to post-season (p<0.05).
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Figure 3: Changes in trabecular vBMD (Trab vBMD, Panel A), periosteal circumference (Peri C, Panel B), cortical thickness (Panel C), cortical vBMD (Panel D), and pSSI (Panel E) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter a indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter b indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. LSC= least significant change. *There was a significant difference in periosteal circumference mean change between the soccer player group and the control group from pre- to post-season (p<0.05).

Mentions: pQCT: At the 4% trabecular site, there were no differences between groups or changes in trabecular vBMD (Figure 3A). At the 20% cortical site, there were increases in the soccer players in cortical BMC and cortical area similar to that observed for periosteal circumference (Figure 3B), and the mean changes were different from controls (all, p≤0.05). Cortical BMC and bone area increased in both starter and non-starter groups, which were different from controls (all; p<0.04) but not each other (BMC, 4.2±1.8 and 3.0±1.4 vs. -1.3±1.4g, respectively; both p<0.05; Area, 3.6±1.5 and 2.5±1.1 vs. -0.9±1.1 mm2, respectively; both p<0.05). Periosteal circumference increased in the starter group (0.5±0.2 mm, p=0.04), which was not different from controls or non-starters (p=0.09 and p=0.58, respectively). There were no changes or differences between groups in cortical vBMD, thickness, and pSSI.


Changes in body composition and bone of female collegiate soccer players through the competitive season and off-season
Changes in trabecular vBMD (Trab vBMD, Panel A), periosteal circumference (Peri C, Panel B), cortical thickness (Panel C), cortical vBMD (Panel D), and pSSI (Panel E) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter a indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter b indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. LSC= least significant change. *There was a significant difference in periosteal circumference mean change between the soccer player group and the control group from pre- to post-season (p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383767&req=5

Figure 3: Changes in trabecular vBMD (Trab vBMD, Panel A), periosteal circumference (Peri C, Panel B), cortical thickness (Panel C), cortical vBMD (Panel D), and pSSI (Panel E) from pre- to post-season and from post- to off-season by group. The letter a indicates a significant change in the group mean from pre- to post-season, while the letter b indicates a significant change in the group mean from post- to off-season. Horizontal lines are adjusted group marginal mean changes. LSC= least significant change. *There was a significant difference in periosteal circumference mean change between the soccer player group and the control group from pre- to post-season (p<0.05).
Mentions: pQCT: At the 4% trabecular site, there were no differences between groups or changes in trabecular vBMD (Figure 3A). At the 20% cortical site, there were increases in the soccer players in cortical BMC and cortical area similar to that observed for periosteal circumference (Figure 3B), and the mean changes were different from controls (all, p≤0.05). Cortical BMC and bone area increased in both starter and non-starter groups, which were different from controls (all; p<0.04) but not each other (BMC, 4.2±1.8 and 3.0±1.4 vs. -1.3±1.4g, respectively; both p<0.05; Area, 3.6±1.5 and 2.5±1.1 vs. -0.9±1.1 mm2, respectively; both p<0.05). Periosteal circumference increased in the starter group (0.5±0.2 mm, p=0.04), which was not different from controls or non-starters (p=0.09 and p=0.58, respectively). There were no changes or differences between groups in cortical vBMD, thickness, and pSSI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC).

Methods:: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season.

Results:: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9&plusmn;0.2 kg, p&lt;0.01; not different from controls, p=0.2) and gained fat mass post-off (1.4&plusmn;0.3 kg, p&lt;0.01; differed from controls, p=0.01). Baseline femoral neck and hip aBMD were higher in SC than controls (both, p&lt;0.04), but increased in controls more than SC in pre-post and decreased post-off. SC cortical bone mineral content (BMC), cortical area and periosteal circumference increased pre-post (all, p&lt;0.01; differed from controls, p&lt;0.05) and trabecular vBMD decreased post-off (-3.0&plusmn;1.3 mg/cm3; p=0.02; not different from controls, p=0.4). Both SC and controls increased cortical BMC, cortical area, and thickness post-off (all, p&lt;0.01).

Conclusion:: Soccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete&rsquo;s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur.

No MeSH data available.