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Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Continuous cEEGrid EEG data (5 s) with eyes open and eyes closed of one participant for a cEEGrid on the right side. Below is the mean amplitude of the alpha band (8–12 Hz). The increase in alpha band activity is readily visible in the raw signal and in the amplitude of the alpha band activity as soon as the eyes are closed. The effect is wide spread and can be seen on all cEEGrid channels.
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Figure 4: Continuous cEEGrid EEG data (5 s) with eyes open and eyes closed of one participant for a cEEGrid on the right side. Below is the mean amplitude of the alpha band (8–12 Hz). The increase in alpha band activity is readily visible in the raw signal and in the amplitude of the alpha band activity as soon as the eyes are closed. The effect is wide spread and can be seen on all cEEGrid channels.

Mentions: In the same study we asked participants to sit relaxed in their chair with either open or closed eyes. For the morning and the afternoon session a clear increase in alpha power in the eyes closed condition compared to the eyes open condition was observed as expected. Figure 4 shows the raw EEG traces of the cEEGrid at the transition of open to closed eyes. The increase in alpha oscillations is readily apparent.


Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG
Continuous cEEGrid EEG data (5 s) with eyes open and eyes closed of one participant for a cEEGrid on the right side. Below is the mean amplitude of the alpha band (8–12 Hz). The increase in alpha band activity is readily visible in the raw signal and in the amplitude of the alpha band activity as soon as the eyes are closed. The effect is wide spread and can be seen on all cEEGrid channels.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383730&req=5

Figure 4: Continuous cEEGrid EEG data (5 s) with eyes open and eyes closed of one participant for a cEEGrid on the right side. Below is the mean amplitude of the alpha band (8–12 Hz). The increase in alpha band activity is readily visible in the raw signal and in the amplitude of the alpha band activity as soon as the eyes are closed. The effect is wide spread and can be seen on all cEEGrid channels.
Mentions: In the same study we asked participants to sit relaxed in their chair with either open or closed eyes. For the morning and the afternoon session a clear increase in alpha power in the eyes closed condition compared to the eyes open condition was observed as expected. Figure 4 shows the raw EEG traces of the cEEGrid at the transition of open to closed eyes. The increase in alpha oscillations is readily apparent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus