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Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) A miniature, wireless EEG amplifier (black; https://mbraintrain.com/) is attached to the back of the head with a headband, and the cEEGrid is connected with the amplifier. The signal is transmitted wirelessly to a smartphone via Bluetooth. Android smartphones can be used for signal acquisition and stimulus presentation. (B) The cEEGrid electrodes are arranged in a C-shape. R4a and R4b may be used as ground (i.e., driven right leg) and reference electrodes. (C) Digitized electrode positions for a representative individual illustrating high-density equidistant EEG cap (black) and cEEGrid locations (yellow). The visualization was generated with the Brainstorm 3 software.
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Figure 2: (A) A miniature, wireless EEG amplifier (black; https://mbraintrain.com/) is attached to the back of the head with a headband, and the cEEGrid is connected with the amplifier. The signal is transmitted wirelessly to a smartphone via Bluetooth. Android smartphones can be used for signal acquisition and stimulus presentation. (B) The cEEGrid electrodes are arranged in a C-shape. R4a and R4b may be used as ground (i.e., driven right leg) and reference electrodes. (C) Digitized electrode positions for a representative individual illustrating high-density equidistant EEG cap (black) and cEEGrid locations (yellow). The visualization was generated with the Brainstorm 3 software.

Mentions: In our lab we generally combine cEEGrids with a small, wireless EEG amplifier (Smarting; www.mbraintrain.com), which is placed at the back of the head using a head band (Figure 2A). The headband can also serve to keep the upper part of the cEEGrid attached to the head. The cEEGrids are designed as disposables but can be reused if handled with care. The two electrodes located directly behind the right ear (R4a and R4b, see Figure 2B) serve as common and reference electrodes in our setup. This leaves eight electrodes distributed around the ear on the reference side and another 10 electrodes if a second cEEGrid is applied on the other side of the head.


Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG
(A) A miniature, wireless EEG amplifier (black; https://mbraintrain.com/) is attached to the back of the head with a headband, and the cEEGrid is connected with the amplifier. The signal is transmitted wirelessly to a smartphone via Bluetooth. Android smartphones can be used for signal acquisition and stimulus presentation. (B) The cEEGrid electrodes are arranged in a C-shape. R4a and R4b may be used as ground (i.e., driven right leg) and reference electrodes. (C) Digitized electrode positions for a representative individual illustrating high-density equidistant EEG cap (black) and cEEGrid locations (yellow). The visualization was generated with the Brainstorm 3 software.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383730&req=5

Figure 2: (A) A miniature, wireless EEG amplifier (black; https://mbraintrain.com/) is attached to the back of the head with a headband, and the cEEGrid is connected with the amplifier. The signal is transmitted wirelessly to a smartphone via Bluetooth. Android smartphones can be used for signal acquisition and stimulus presentation. (B) The cEEGrid electrodes are arranged in a C-shape. R4a and R4b may be used as ground (i.e., driven right leg) and reference electrodes. (C) Digitized electrode positions for a representative individual illustrating high-density equidistant EEG cap (black) and cEEGrid locations (yellow). The visualization was generated with the Brainstorm 3 software.
Mentions: In our lab we generally combine cEEGrids with a small, wireless EEG amplifier (Smarting; www.mbraintrain.com), which is placed at the back of the head using a head band (Figure 2A). The headband can also serve to keep the upper part of the cEEGrid attached to the head. The cEEGrids are designed as disposables but can be reused if handled with care. The two electrodes located directly behind the right ear (R4a and R4b, see Figure 2B) serve as common and reference electrodes in our setup. This leaves eight electrodes distributed around the ear on the reference side and another 10 electrodes if a second cEEGrid is applied on the other side of the head.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus