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Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG

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ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.


cEEGrid application. (A) The skin around the ear is cleansed with alcohol swabs. (B) The hair around the ear is pushed aside and the cEEGrid is placed around the ear with an adhesive tape. Good electrode skin conductance is assured by a drop of electrode gel on each electrode. (C) The applied grid allows for stable EEG recordings over several hours.
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Figure 1: cEEGrid application. (A) The skin around the ear is cleansed with alcohol swabs. (B) The hair around the ear is pushed aside and the cEEGrid is placed around the ear with an adhesive tape. Good electrode skin conductance is assured by a drop of electrode gel on each electrode. (C) The applied grid allows for stable EEG recordings over several hours.

Mentions: Based on the results of Bleichner et al. (2015), which showed that an in-concha electrode referenced to an above the ear electrode was sensitive to a P300 event-related potential (ERP), we have developed the cEEGrid (Debener et al., 2015). Unlike most other EEG electrodes, cEEGrid sensor arrays are printed, using flex-print technology (see www.ceegrid.com, for further details). cEEGrids are placed around the ear and hold firmly on the skin with an adhesive (Figure 1).


Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG
cEEGrid application. (A) The skin around the ear is cleansed with alcohol swabs. (B) The hair around the ear is pushed aside and the cEEGrid is placed around the ear with an adhesive tape. Good electrode skin conductance is assured by a drop of electrode gel on each electrode. (C) The applied grid allows for stable EEG recordings over several hours.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383730&req=5

Figure 1: cEEGrid application. (A) The skin around the ear is cleansed with alcohol swabs. (B) The hair around the ear is pushed aside and the cEEGrid is placed around the ear with an adhesive tape. Good electrode skin conductance is assured by a drop of electrode gel on each electrode. (C) The applied grid allows for stable EEG recordings over several hours.
Mentions: Based on the results of Bleichner et al. (2015), which showed that an in-concha electrode referenced to an above the ear electrode was sensitive to a P300 event-related potential (ERP), we have developed the cEEGrid (Debener et al., 2015). Unlike most other EEG electrodes, cEEGrid sensor arrays are printed, using flex-print technology (see www.ceegrid.com, for further details). cEEGrids are placed around the ear and hold firmly on the skin with an adhesive (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG.

No MeSH data available.