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Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.


Relationship between changes in carnosine and histidine (mM) content in the hippocampus
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Fig9: Relationship between changes in carnosine and histidine (mM) content in the hippocampus

Mentions: Differences in carnosine and histidine content in various areas of the brain can be observed in Table 1. Across the five brain regions analyzed the carnosine content in animals that consumed β-alanine was on average 79% higher than in those animals that consumed the vehicle. Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was significantly higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL. Trends towards a difference were also seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). Histidine content across the five regions of the brain that were analyzed was 86% higher for BA than P. Trends towards a higher histidine content were noted in the hippocampus (p = 0.053), cerebral cortex (p = 0.070) and thalamus (p = 0.108) for BA compared to PL. Carnosine content was significantly correlated (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) to histidine content in the hippocampus (see Fig. 9). Positive correlations were also noted between carnosine and histidine in the cortex (r = 0.48, p = 0.037), hypothalamus (r = 0.48, p = 0.036) and thalamus (r = 0.43, p = 0.070).Table 1


Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine
Relationship between changes in carnosine and histidine (mM) content in the hippocampus
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383715&req=5

Fig9: Relationship between changes in carnosine and histidine (mM) content in the hippocampus
Mentions: Differences in carnosine and histidine content in various areas of the brain can be observed in Table 1. Across the five brain regions analyzed the carnosine content in animals that consumed β-alanine was on average 79% higher than in those animals that consumed the vehicle. Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was significantly higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL. Trends towards a difference were also seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). Histidine content across the five regions of the brain that were analyzed was 86% higher for BA than P. Trends towards a higher histidine content were noted in the hippocampus (p = 0.053), cerebral cortex (p = 0.070) and thalamus (p = 0.108) for BA compared to PL. Carnosine content was significantly correlated (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) to histidine content in the hippocampus (see Fig. 9). Positive correlations were also noted between carnosine and histidine in the cortex (r = 0.48, p = 0.037), hypothalamus (r = 0.48, p = 0.036) and thalamus (r = 0.43, p = 0.070).Table 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of &beta;-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100&nbsp;mg&nbsp;kg&minus;1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7&ndash;14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.058) and amygdala (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.009) and CTL (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.003) and CA3 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.