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Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.


Prevalence rate of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior. BA β-alanine, PL placebo; *significant difference between the groups
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Fig4: Prevalence rate of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior. BA β-alanine, PL placebo; *significant difference between the groups

Mentions: Significant differences were found between groups in the occurrence of animals fulfilling the criteria for mTBI (χ2 = 4.05, p = 0.044) (see Fig. 4). The prevalence of animals demonstrating mTBI was significantly lower in BA than in PL treated rats [26.5% (13/49) and 46% (23/50), respectively]. No significant differences were noted between the groups in the prevalence of animals displaying PTSD-like patterns of behavior (χ2 = 0.007, p = 0.93). The prevalence of PTSD was similar between BA and PL treated rats [10.2% (5/49) and 12.0% (6/50), respectively]. In addition, the prevalence of animals demonstrating the comorbid pattern of mTBI + PTSD was not significantly different (χ2 = 1.31, p = 0.25) between BA (4%, 2/49) and PL (10%, 5/50). A trend though was noted (χ2 = 3.07, p = 0.08) in the prevalence of well-adapted animals between the groups. Animals in BA exposed to the low-pressure blast wave tended to be more well adapted (67%, 33/49) than animals in PL (50%, 25/50).Fig. 4


Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine
Prevalence rate of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior. BA β-alanine, PL placebo; *significant difference between the groups
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383715&req=5

Fig4: Prevalence rate of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior. BA β-alanine, PL placebo; *significant difference between the groups
Mentions: Significant differences were found between groups in the occurrence of animals fulfilling the criteria for mTBI (χ2 = 4.05, p = 0.044) (see Fig. 4). The prevalence of animals demonstrating mTBI was significantly lower in BA than in PL treated rats [26.5% (13/49) and 46% (23/50), respectively]. No significant differences were noted between the groups in the prevalence of animals displaying PTSD-like patterns of behavior (χ2 = 0.007, p = 0.93). The prevalence of PTSD was similar between BA and PL treated rats [10.2% (5/49) and 12.0% (6/50), respectively]. In addition, the prevalence of animals demonstrating the comorbid pattern of mTBI + PTSD was not significantly different (χ2 = 1.31, p = 0.25) between BA (4%, 2/49) and PL (10%, 5/50). A trend though was noted (χ2 = 3.07, p = 0.08) in the prevalence of well-adapted animals between the groups. Animals in BA exposed to the low-pressure blast wave tended to be more well adapted (67%, 33/49) than animals in PL (50%, 25/50).Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.