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Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.


Cognitive criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of cognitive performance in the Morris water maze
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Fig3: Cognitive criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of cognitive performance in the Morris water maze

Mentions: EL refers to the time in seconds it took the rat to reach the platform as a function of input number (number of trials); Y0 refers to the asymptotic time it took the rat to find the platform for large input values (t≫). A refers to the difference (∆) between the time it took the rat to find the platform on the initial input and the asymptotic time (Y0). T refers to the decay constant, a measure of the rat’s rate of learning. The slope at the initial input (A/t) is the initial learning speed, and the adjusted R2 refers to the goodness of fit. Where EL0 = the asymptotic value of EL as t = end point or EL final; ELΔ = the difference between EL peak and EL0; t = number of inputs to the maze. According to the means of the exponential decay parameters (EL0, ELΔ, T and adjusted R2), confidence limit for “normal performance” was defined for each variable (±2 standard deviations) for acquisition and reversal phases. Subsequently, the memory performance obtained by fitting the escape latency decay curve was used to assess learning and memory performance after blast exposure. Individual animals were classified according to their cognitive and behavioral response pattern, as exhibiting either “mTBI-related” or well-adapted memory performance. The procedure is detailed in Fig. 3.Fig. 3


Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine
Cognitive criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of cognitive performance in the Morris water maze
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383715&req=5

Fig3: Cognitive criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of cognitive performance in the Morris water maze
Mentions: EL refers to the time in seconds it took the rat to reach the platform as a function of input number (number of trials); Y0 refers to the asymptotic time it took the rat to find the platform for large input values (t≫). A refers to the difference (∆) between the time it took the rat to find the platform on the initial input and the asymptotic time (Y0). T refers to the decay constant, a measure of the rat’s rate of learning. The slope at the initial input (A/t) is the initial learning speed, and the adjusted R2 refers to the goodness of fit. Where EL0 = the asymptotic value of EL as t = end point or EL final; ELΔ = the difference between EL peak and EL0; t = number of inputs to the maze. According to the means of the exponential decay parameters (EL0, ELΔ, T and adjusted R2), confidence limit for “normal performance” was defined for each variable (±2 standard deviations) for acquisition and reversal phases. Subsequently, the memory performance obtained by fitting the escape latency decay curve was used to assess learning and memory performance after blast exposure. Individual animals were classified according to their cognitive and behavioral response pattern, as exhibiting either “mTBI-related” or well-adapted memory performance. The procedure is detailed in Fig. 3.Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.