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Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.


The cut-off behavioral criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of response to the stressor. EPM elevated plus maze, ASR acute startle response, EBR extreme behavioral response, MBR minimal behavioral response, PBR partial behavioral response
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Fig2: The cut-off behavioral criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of response to the stressor. EPM elevated plus maze, ASR acute startle response, EBR extreme behavioral response, MBR minimal behavioral response, PBR partial behavioral response

Mentions: To model DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria for PTSD, the “the cut-off behavioral criteria” (CBC) model of PTSD-like phenotype was employed (Cohen et al. 2003, 2004; Cohen and Zohar 2004). This model is based on the understanding that a clinical diagnosis of PTSD is made only if an individual exhibits a certain number of symptoms of sufficient severity from well-defined symptom-clusters over a specific period of time. Classifying the degree of how individual behavior is affected by a stressor is based on the premise that an extreme behavioral response to a priming trigger is inadequate and maladaptive, and represents a pathological response (Cohen et al. 2003; Cohen and Zohar 2004). Animals were classified according to their behavioral response pattern on both the EPM and ASR, using the CBC, as exhibiting either an “extreme behavioral response” (EBR) or a “minimal behavioral response” (MBR). Behavioral performances that fulfilled neither set of criteria were labeled as exhibiting a “partial behavioral response” (PBR). This procedure is detailed in Fig. 2.Fig. 2


Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β -alanine
The cut-off behavioral criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of response to the stressor. EPM elevated plus maze, ASR acute startle response, EBR extreme behavioral response, MBR minimal behavioral response, PBR partial behavioral response
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383715&req=5

Fig2: The cut-off behavioral criteria algorithm. Animals were classified into groups according to degree of response to the stressor. EPM elevated plus maze, ASR acute startle response, EBR extreme behavioral response, MBR minimal behavioral response, PBR partial behavioral response
Mentions: To model DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria for PTSD, the “the cut-off behavioral criteria” (CBC) model of PTSD-like phenotype was employed (Cohen et al. 2003, 2004; Cohen and Zohar 2004). This model is based on the understanding that a clinical diagnosis of PTSD is made only if an individual exhibits a certain number of symptoms of sufficient severity from well-defined symptom-clusters over a specific period of time. Classifying the degree of how individual behavior is affected by a stressor is based on the premise that an extreme behavioral response to a priming trigger is inadequate and maladaptive, and represents a pathological response (Cohen et al. 2003; Cohen and Zohar 2004). Animals were classified according to their behavioral response pattern on both the EPM and ASR, using the CBC, as exhibiting either an “extreme behavioral response” (EBR) or a “minimal behavioral response” (MBR). Behavioral performances that fulfilled neither set of criteria were labeled as exhibiting a “partial behavioral response” (PBR). This procedure is detailed in Fig. 2.Fig. 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg−1) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7–14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p < 0.001), while GFAP expression in CA1 (p = 0.003) and CA3 (p = 0.040) subregions were higher in PL than other groups. Results indicated that BA supplementation for 30-day increased resiliency to mTBI in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

No MeSH data available.