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Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei LC5, a Potential Probiotics for Atopic Dermatitis

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Probiotics are living microorganisms providing health beneficial effect to the host... In the previous study, we isolated L. casei LC5 strain from fermented dairy products, which showed immune regulatory functions, especially, therapeutic effect on atopic dermatitis as a member of complex probiotics... In order to gain better insight of the probiotic effect on atopic dermatitis, we analyzed the genome sequence of L. casei LC5... For phylogenetic and comparative study, we downloaded 19 genome sequences of L. casei group (10 of L. casei, 8 of L. paracasei, 1 of Lactobacillus zeae, and 1 of L. rhamnosus) from NCBI genome database... A list of the reference genomes are as follows: L. casei Zhang (NC_014334), L. casei BL23 (NC_010999), L. casei BD-II (NC_017474), L. casei LC2W (NC_017473), L. casei 12A (NZ_CP006690), L. casei W56 (NC_018641), L. casei LcY (NZ_CM001848), L. casei LcA (NZ_CM001861), L. casei LOCK919 (NC_021721), L. casei ATCC 393 (NZ_AP012544), L. paracasei ATCC 334 (NC_008526), L. paracasei 362.5013889 (NC_022112), L. paracasei N1115 (NZ_CP007122), L. paracasei JCM (NZ_AP012541), L. paracasei CAUH35 (NZ_CP012187), L. paracasei L9 (NZ_CP012148), L. paracasei KL1 (NZ_CP013921), L. zeae DSM 20178 (NZ_AZCT01000001), and L. rhamnosus GG (NC_013198)... The tree is drawn to scale with branch lengths in the same units as those of the evolutionary distances used to infer the phylogenetic tree... The resulting phylogenetic tree was produced using MEGA6... Five genomes (ATCC 393, N87, 867_LCAS, Lbs2, JCM 1134) and L. casei LC5 belong to the high-GC group and the other genomes belong to the low-GC group (Table 1)... Comparative study of both 16S rRNA genes and whole genome sequences revealed that the closest genome of L. casei LC5 was L. casei ATCC 393 and second closest one was L. zeae DSM 20178... The three genomes which showed distinguishable differences on the comparative study, LC5, ATCC 393, and L. zeae DSM 20178, belong to the high-GC group as described in the above section... L. casei LC5 has at least 36 more proteins than the other genomes on the category G and has at least 8 more proteins than the other genomes on the category K... The gene expansion of those two functional categories in the LC5 genome is not found on the other members of high-GC group... Although the genomes belonging to high-GC group showed high similarities to each other and the genomes belonging to the high-GC group do not have excessive proteins on the categories, G and K, when compared to those belonging to the low-GC group.

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Genome characteristics of Lactobacillus casei LC5 genome. (A) Circular map of genomic features; eight tracks were plotted in the map. Track 1 (light blue; outermost), forward-stranded coding CDS; Track 2 (blue), reverse-stranded coding CDS; Track 3 (light purple), rRNA including 5S, 16S, and 23S; Track 4 (green), Trna; Track 5 (orange), peak of pan-genomic conservation; Track 6 (red), novel regions (below 85% similarities with the other genomes); Track 7 (light green and purple), GC content; and Track 8 (light green and purple), GC skew. (B) Abundance of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) categories; black point indicates the abundance of LC5 for each category. A box and whisker plot indicates a statistical distribution of the COG categories of 19 L. casei genomes. (C) Phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on 16S rRNA genes and (D) phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on average nucleotide identity. The value 0.02 of the ruler in (D) indicates 2% of genomic dissimilarity. Red boxes on the (C,D) indicate the genomes associated to the high-GC group and green boxes indicate the genomes associated to the low-GC group.
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Figure 1: Genome characteristics of Lactobacillus casei LC5 genome. (A) Circular map of genomic features; eight tracks were plotted in the map. Track 1 (light blue; outermost), forward-stranded coding CDS; Track 2 (blue), reverse-stranded coding CDS; Track 3 (light purple), rRNA including 5S, 16S, and 23S; Track 4 (green), Trna; Track 5 (orange), peak of pan-genomic conservation; Track 6 (red), novel regions (below 85% similarities with the other genomes); Track 7 (light green and purple), GC content; and Track 8 (light green and purple), GC skew. (B) Abundance of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) categories; black point indicates the abundance of LC5 for each category. A box and whisker plot indicates a statistical distribution of the COG categories of 19 L. casei genomes. (C) Phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on 16S rRNA genes and (D) phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on average nucleotide identity. The value 0.02 of the ruler in (D) indicates 2% of genomic dissimilarity. Red boxes on the (C,D) indicate the genomes associated to the high-GC group and green boxes indicate the genomes associated to the low-GC group.

Mentions: We obtained a complete genome sequence of L. casei LC5 using SMRT sequencing. This genome has a chromosome and no organelle sequences. The total size of the genome is 3,132,867 bp and its GC content is 47.9%. A total of 2,925 genes were detected from the genome sequence. The number of coding CDS is 2,817 and pseudogenes is 31. Seventy seven RNAs (15 rRNAs, 59 tRNAs, and 3 non-coding RNAs) were also identified. Repeating region or CRISPR array was not identified. Genomic features of L. casei LC5 are shown in Figure 1A.


Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei LC5, a Potential Probiotics for Atopic Dermatitis
Genome characteristics of Lactobacillus casei LC5 genome. (A) Circular map of genomic features; eight tracks were plotted in the map. Track 1 (light blue; outermost), forward-stranded coding CDS; Track 2 (blue), reverse-stranded coding CDS; Track 3 (light purple), rRNA including 5S, 16S, and 23S; Track 4 (green), Trna; Track 5 (orange), peak of pan-genomic conservation; Track 6 (red), novel regions (below 85% similarities with the other genomes); Track 7 (light green and purple), GC content; and Track 8 (light green and purple), GC skew. (B) Abundance of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) categories; black point indicates the abundance of LC5 for each category. A box and whisker plot indicates a statistical distribution of the COG categories of 19 L. casei genomes. (C) Phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on 16S rRNA genes and (D) phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on average nucleotide identity. The value 0.02 of the ruler in (D) indicates 2% of genomic dissimilarity. Red boxes on the (C,D) indicate the genomes associated to the high-GC group and green boxes indicate the genomes associated to the low-GC group.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: Genome characteristics of Lactobacillus casei LC5 genome. (A) Circular map of genomic features; eight tracks were plotted in the map. Track 1 (light blue; outermost), forward-stranded coding CDS; Track 2 (blue), reverse-stranded coding CDS; Track 3 (light purple), rRNA including 5S, 16S, and 23S; Track 4 (green), Trna; Track 5 (orange), peak of pan-genomic conservation; Track 6 (red), novel regions (below 85% similarities with the other genomes); Track 7 (light green and purple), GC content; and Track 8 (light green and purple), GC skew. (B) Abundance of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) categories; black point indicates the abundance of LC5 for each category. A box and whisker plot indicates a statistical distribution of the COG categories of 19 L. casei genomes. (C) Phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on 16S rRNA genes and (D) phylogenetic tree of L. casei group based on average nucleotide identity. The value 0.02 of the ruler in (D) indicates 2% of genomic dissimilarity. Red boxes on the (C,D) indicate the genomes associated to the high-GC group and green boxes indicate the genomes associated to the low-GC group.
Mentions: We obtained a complete genome sequence of L. casei LC5 using SMRT sequencing. This genome has a chromosome and no organelle sequences. The total size of the genome is 3,132,867 bp and its GC content is 47.9%. A total of 2,925 genes were detected from the genome sequence. The number of coding CDS is 2,817 and pseudogenes is 31. Seventy seven RNAs (15 rRNAs, 59 tRNAs, and 3 non-coding RNAs) were also identified. Repeating region or CRISPR array was not identified. Genomic features of L. casei LC5 are shown in Figure 1A.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Probiotics are living microorganisms providing health beneficial effect to the host... In the previous study, we isolated L. casei LC5 strain from fermented dairy products, which showed immune regulatory functions, especially, therapeutic effect on atopic dermatitis as a member of complex probiotics... In order to gain better insight of the probiotic effect on atopic dermatitis, we analyzed the genome sequence of L. casei LC5... For phylogenetic and comparative study, we downloaded 19 genome sequences of L. casei group (10 of L. casei, 8 of L. paracasei, 1 of Lactobacillus zeae, and 1 of L. rhamnosus) from NCBI genome database... A list of the reference genomes are as follows: L. casei Zhang (NC_014334), L. casei BL23 (NC_010999), L. casei BD-II (NC_017474), L. casei LC2W (NC_017473), L. casei 12A (NZ_CP006690), L. casei W56 (NC_018641), L. casei LcY (NZ_CM001848), L. casei LcA (NZ_CM001861), L. casei LOCK919 (NC_021721), L. casei ATCC 393 (NZ_AP012544), L. paracasei ATCC 334 (NC_008526), L. paracasei 362.5013889 (NC_022112), L. paracasei N1115 (NZ_CP007122), L. paracasei JCM (NZ_AP012541), L. paracasei CAUH35 (NZ_CP012187), L. paracasei L9 (NZ_CP012148), L. paracasei KL1 (NZ_CP013921), L. zeae DSM 20178 (NZ_AZCT01000001), and L. rhamnosus GG (NC_013198)... The tree is drawn to scale with branch lengths in the same units as those of the evolutionary distances used to infer the phylogenetic tree... The resulting phylogenetic tree was produced using MEGA6... Five genomes (ATCC 393, N87, 867_LCAS, Lbs2, JCM 1134) and L. casei LC5 belong to the high-GC group and the other genomes belong to the low-GC group (Table 1)... Comparative study of both 16S rRNA genes and whole genome sequences revealed that the closest genome of L. casei LC5 was L. casei ATCC 393 and second closest one was L. zeae DSM 20178... The three genomes which showed distinguishable differences on the comparative study, LC5, ATCC 393, and L. zeae DSM 20178, belong to the high-GC group as described in the above section... L. casei LC5 has at least 36 more proteins than the other genomes on the category G and has at least 8 more proteins than the other genomes on the category K... The gene expansion of those two functional categories in the LC5 genome is not found on the other members of high-GC group... Although the genomes belonging to high-GC group showed high similarities to each other and the genomes belonging to the high-GC group do not have excessive proteins on the categories, G and K, when compared to those belonging to the low-GC group.

No MeSH data available.