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Sources and fate of microplastics in marine and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea — a preliminary study

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ABSTRACT

Microplastics’ (particles size ≤5 mm) sources and fate in marine bottom and beach sediments of the brackish are strongly polluted Baltic Sea have been investigated. Microplastics were extracted using sodium chloride (1.2 g cm−3). Their qualitative identification was conducted using micro-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (μFT-IR). Concentration of microplastics varied from 25 particles kg−1 d.w. at the open sea beach to 53 particles kg−1 d.w. at beaches of strongly urbanized bay. In bottom sediments, microplastics concentration was visibly lower compared to beach sediments (0–27 particles kg−1 d.w.) and decreased from the shore to the open, deep-sea regions. The most frequent microplastics dimensions ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm, and transparent fibers were predominant. Polyester, which is a popular fabrics component, was the most common type of microplastic in both marine bottom (50%) and beach sediments (27%). Additionally, poly(vinyl acetate) used in shipbuilding as well as poly(ethylene-propylene) used for packaging were numerous in marine bottom (25% of all polymers) and beach sediments (18% of all polymers). Polymer density seems to be an important factor influencing microplastics circulation. Low density plastic debris probably recirculates between beach sediments and seawater in a greater extent than higher density debris. Therefore, their deposition is potentially limited and physical degradation is favored. Consequently, low density microplastics concentration may be underestimated using current methods due to too small size of the debris. This influences also the findings of qualitative research of microplastics which provide the basis for conclusions about the sources of microplastics in the marine environment.

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Percentage of different polymer types a in marine bottom sediments and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea, and b at the cliff coast of the Southern Baltic Sea depending on the seawater dynamical conditions
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Fig4: Percentage of different polymer types a in marine bottom sediments and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea, and b at the cliff coast of the Southern Baltic Sea depending on the seawater dynamical conditions

Mentions: Four types of polymers were identified (Fig. 4a). The most numerous polymers in marine bottom sediments were PEST (50%) and PVA (25%; Fig. 4a).Fig. 4


Sources and fate of microplastics in marine and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea — a preliminary study
Percentage of different polymer types a in marine bottom sediments and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea, and b at the cliff coast of the Southern Baltic Sea depending on the seawater dynamical conditions
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383691&req=5

Fig4: Percentage of different polymer types a in marine bottom sediments and beach sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea, and b at the cliff coast of the Southern Baltic Sea depending on the seawater dynamical conditions
Mentions: Four types of polymers were identified (Fig. 4a). The most numerous polymers in marine bottom sediments were PEST (50%) and PVA (25%; Fig. 4a).Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Microplastics’ (particles size ≤5 mm) sources and fate in marine bottom and beach sediments of the brackish are strongly polluted Baltic Sea have been investigated. Microplastics were extracted using sodium chloride (1.2 g cm−3). Their qualitative identification was conducted using micro-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (μFT-IR). Concentration of microplastics varied from 25 particles kg−1 d.w. at the open sea beach to 53 particles kg−1 d.w. at beaches of strongly urbanized bay. In bottom sediments, microplastics concentration was visibly lower compared to beach sediments (0–27 particles kg−1 d.w.) and decreased from the shore to the open, deep-sea regions. The most frequent microplastics dimensions ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm, and transparent fibers were predominant. Polyester, which is a popular fabrics component, was the most common type of microplastic in both marine bottom (50%) and beach sediments (27%). Additionally, poly(vinyl acetate) used in shipbuilding as well as poly(ethylene-propylene) used for packaging were numerous in marine bottom (25% of all polymers) and beach sediments (18% of all polymers). Polymer density seems to be an important factor influencing microplastics circulation. Low density plastic debris probably recirculates between beach sediments and seawater in a greater extent than higher density debris. Therefore, their deposition is potentially limited and physical degradation is favored. Consequently, low density microplastics concentration may be underestimated using current methods due to too small size of the debris. This influences also the findings of qualitative research of microplastics which provide the basis for conclusions about the sources of microplastics in the marine environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus